Diane's Science folo

All the systems in the body

The Skeletal System

Skeletal System of Albert

The Skeletal system of Albert is very different from a human.

One main feature of it is that it's segmented. Since Albert has an exoskeleton, the skeleton would have to be segmented or else he wouldn't be able to move or swim properly. Another that would have this type of skeleton would be the shrimp.

The main role of the skeleton is to protect the soft organs and muscles inside Albert. The muscles are attached to the exoskeleton which means that it also helps movement.
Our skeletal is very different since Albert's an exoskeleton and we have endoskeletons. Albert's skeleton helps protect his whole body whilst our skeleton only protects some places.
Some benefits to this type of skeleton would be that there'd be more protection than endoskeletons.
A disadvantage about this skeleton would be the limited amount of movement. This could limit the highest speed that Albert can go.
Since bone can't exactly grow with Albert, he would probably grow a new exoskeleton under the old skeleton. Once the new one pushes the old one off, the skeleton would probably be very soft and Albert would be in a very vulnerable state then.
The skeleton is made mostly of chitin and calcium carbonate, the substance that's found in egg shells.

Skeletal System of Slink

Slinky has a very interesting skeletal system. It has a hydroskeleton; a skeleton made of fluids.
These 'bones' are controlled by the muscles of Slinky. Depending on the containing fluid and the surrounding muscles, Slinky is enabled to move.

Skeletal system of a W-eyed octopus like fish that's called a Cuttlefish

The cuttlebone is shaped like an oval... sort of. It has a smooth bumpy texture on one side and a crumbly rough texture on the other, a lot like a crumbled seashell. It's very very light which would probably help the bouyancy of the cuttlefish. Actually, it's main role would be to help it swim because of it's streamlined shape. It wouldn't be made for protection because it is very brittle and easy to break. It's mainly made of aragonite.
It's a form of internal skeleton.

Skeletal system of... YOU

Your skeletal system is nothing like anything I have mentioned above. You have a very special type of skeletal system... actually you don't, but let's just call it an endoskeleton.
It's made of more than 200 bones, your spine being the main bone that holds everything together. All 206(in adults) are split into two main groups, the axial and appendicular bones.
Each bone in our body has usually four layers that make up the whole bone, the Periosteum, compact bone, the cancellous and the bone marrow. The periosteum is the very thin but dense membrane that covers the bone and flourishes it with nutrients. The compact bone is the strongest outer layer. It does most of the protecting. The cancellous is a bit spongier and lighter than the compact bone but it is still strong. The bone marrow, which is the very center, is in charge of making blood cells and it has many holes which makes it the weakest layer that is protected by everything else.
We have many roles for the skeletal system. It helps us to move, it protects our vital organs such as our heart and our brain and it supports our whole stature.
Although bones don't exactly live like us, they are described as 'alive' since they are made up of living cells that grow and repair themselves.
As a child we have much more bones than when we are adults. Some bones fuse together to make larger bones and usually the cartilage, the soft bone as a child, hardens to become actual hard protecting bones.
Our skeletal system is of course endoskeleton.
The most similar type of animal that has a skeletal system like us is the ape, monkeys, baboons etc.

The Musculatory System

    1. The structures of the chicken wing corresponds to the arm of the human.

    2. When I tugged on the upper wing the whole wing flexed

    3. This muscle corresponds to the biceps of a human.

    4. The extensor muscle is the muscle at the bottom of the wing. It is very similar to the tricep of the human.

    5. The flexor muscle is at the top of the wing. It corresponds to the bicep of a human

    6. When I tug at the bottom muscles the whole wing extends.

    7. I could see the muscles connected to the bone by the tendon.

    8. The tendon looked very dense, white and milky. It also looks stringy and strong, it went across the whole bone.

    9. The ligament is the tissue that connects the two bones together.

    10. This joint is called a hinge.

    11. The joint at the shoulder is the ball and socket joint.

    12. The cartilage at the joint of the bone was softer than the compact bone but it was still hard. It was very white and slippery.

    13. The bones found in the chicken wing were the humerus, ulna and the radius

The Circulatory System

The Heart Dissection

1. The sheep's heart was very firm on the left side and a bit squishier on the right. You could feel the dense muscle at the bottom and the area of the septum could be seen by a large coronary artery and also a line of white that marked where the muscly wall was. The arteries could be seen very clearly at the cut end of the heart. The aorta could be seen the clearest. You couldn't see the sections dividing the atrium and ventricle by the outside.

2.

3. The coronary arteries can be seen very clearly and are these red lines that run lengthwise across the heart. I tried cutting one to see if a lot of blood came out and discovered how deep it was fitted. If this artery was blocked by a clot it would probably burst and cause a lot of trauma.

4. I know the left and right side of the heart because the left side is bigger than the right and we can see that by the septum which is marked by a white layer of fatty tissue.

5a. The thickness of the top of the heart was thinner than the muscle of the bottom of the heart but it was still very dense. You could see the tissues in layers at the top of the heart.
5b. The thickness of the bottom of the heart was very hard and thick. It was hard to determine how thick until we cut it open and the texture of the inside of the heart was ripply and bumpy.
5c. The fat could be seen at the top and along the line of the septum. There wasn’t much but you could see the white that surrounded the heart clearly enough.
5d. The major vessels that entered or exited the heart could be seen quite clearly, especially the aorta. From the aorta we could see a hole that most probably leads to a coronary artery. The other arteries and vein looked like holes that were punched through the top but they could be clearly seen.

6. Deoxygenated blood leaves the right ventricle in an artery and travels to the lungs. Here, the blood collects oxygen, so it is now oxygenated. The blood travels back to the heart via a vein.

7a. The thickness of the artery seemed rubbery and very elastic. Its walls were definitely much thicker than the coronary veins. It has to be thick and muscly in order to withstand the high pressure that the blood pumps out of the heart.
7b. The artery is taking the blood to the rest of the body where it gets deoxygenated because they’re giving the cells around the body oxygen.

8a. The thickness of the vena cava was much thinner than that of the aorta. It is like this because it doesn’t have to withstand the high pressure, instead it only has to withstand the light trickle that comes back to the heart.
8b. The vena cava goes back into right atrium.
8c. When we poured water into the vena cava the water came out again from the pulmonary artery.

9. When we added water into the pulmonary vein it came out of the aorta.

INSIDE THE HEART

1. Inside the left side of the heart I could see the bicusped valve. It was a lining of stringy tissue that was very hard to rip apart. In the left ventricle the muscle had a rippled surface and it’s muscle was very dense and thick.

2. The jobs of the valves would be to stop the blood from rushing the wrong way.

3. The aorta was a very elastic tissue of muscle and you could tell it was rubbery. It seemed hard to rip but it was quite easy to cut it open. We could also see the coronary artery opening from it.

4.

Feature

Describe

Why do you think it is like this?

The thickness of the walls of the ventricles compared to the atrium

The thickness in the ventricles were obviously much thicker than that of the atriums. They were also denser and harder to cut open.

It is probably like this because the ventricles are the muscles that need to the pump the blood a longer length than the atriums.

The thickness of the wall of the left ventricle compared to the right ventricle

The left ventricle was harder and less squishy than the right ventricle and you could tell this just by touching the muscles there.

The left ventricle pumps blood through the whole body whilst the right ventricle only needs to pump the blood to the lungs therefore, the left ventricle has to have a stronger muscle than the right ventricle.

The muscle separating the right and left sides of the heart

The septum was very dense, even denser than the muscle in the left ventricle

It is like this because it needs to withstand the pressure of blood going on in each side of it the ventricles and atriums.

The size(volume) of each of the chambers? Are they different sizes, which is the largest?

The ventricles were larger than the atriums and the left ventricle seemed a bit larger than the right ventricle

The left ventricle is probably the largest because it is the muscle that sends all the blood to the whole body and therefore needs to the most space and strength in order to do so.

5.

Structure

Where is it located

Describe its role

Left Ventricle

Bottom left chamber

To pump oxygenated blood to the whole body

Right Ventricle

Bottom right chamber

To pump deoxygenated blood to the lungs

Left Atrium

Upper left chamber

To receive oxygenated blood from the lungs

Right Atrium

Upper right chamber

To receive deoxygenated blood from the body

Aorta

The main thick and muscly vessel on the top of the heart

The pathway that sends the high pressure blood towards the rest of the body

Pulmonary Vein

The less muscly vessel next to the aorta on top of the heart

The pathway that leads the newly oxygenated blood to the left atrium from the lungs

Pulmonary Artery

The muscly vessel that comes from the right ventricle

The pathway that leads deoxygenated from the right ventricle to the lungs

Vena Cava

The vein that leads into the right atrium

The pathway that leads deoxygenated blood from the rest of the body into the right atrium

Valves

The lining that separates the atriums from the ventricles

To make sure backwash doesn’t happen and that the blood travels the right way and stays efficient

Coronary Artery

The thick veins that run along the heart

To supply the heart itself with blood and keep it running.

Septum

The thick very muscly wall that separates the left and right heart

To make sure the blood doesn’t leak from the left to right or vice versa.

Walking The Heart

This activity consisted of teamwork and understanding of what the heart looked like and how it worked. Our class was split into groups of two and using the equipment from the sports shed we got to assemble a large diagram of the heart(as labelled above). We had to demonstrate how the deoxygenated blood turned to oxygenated blood by us being the actual blood cells. We were given blue or red coloured plates and like a mini maze, we had to walk around the heart and through the veins and arteries.
Our group exaggerated the thickness of the walls of the left and right side of the heart. We also made it clear that the atriums were much smaller in size than the ventricles.

The Respiratory System

Pluck Demo

    1. The texture of the trachea was very bumpy and pretty hard. The rings of cartilage are important to make sure the trachea doesn’t collapse and makes sure the food and air goes down properly.

    2. The texture of the lung was very smooth and we would come across some bubbles sometimes. The colour was a very dried out brown and it looked almost rotten. I think it would’ve been much redder when the animal had been alive since the blood would’ve been still running through it.

    3. The heart connects to the heart by the pulmonary artery and pulmonary vein.

    4. The role of the diaphragm is to push the air out of the lungs when we’re exhaling and allow air to come into the lung as well. It controls this by contracting when inhaling and relaxing(getting bigger) when exhaling.

    1. The role of the liver is to clean blood(the toxins in it), produce bile and store energy as a sugar called glycogen.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the muscular and skeletal system and the circulatory and respiratory system are very closely connected and they rely on each other to preform efficiently and to help the body work and move.

The skeletal system supports the muscular by giving the whole body a structure and a frame, whilst the muscular system helps with movement. Without the muscular system the skeletal system wouldn’t be able to move but without the skeletal system the muscular system wouldn’t have the support and structure to work.

The circulatory relies on the respiratory and vice versa. The respiratory gives the oxygen and the circulatory sends the oxygen around the body. They closely connect the most at the lungs. The respiratory system sends the oxygen to the lungs where the circulatory would send the deoxygenated blood to. The Oxygen would then be sent to the alveoli after going through many small passages and then exchange the oxygen with carbon dioxide. The oxygen oxygenates the blood which then goes back to the heart and the carbon dioxide would be sent out of the body through the respiratory system.

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