Moon Phases

Waxing: The moon at any time after new moon and before full moon, so called because its illuminated area is increasing.

Waning: the moon at any time after full moon and before new moon so called because its illuminated area is decreasing.

Gibbous: When the moon is more than half illuminated.

Crescent: When the moon is less than half illuminated.

When it is waning it starts from the full moon. It loses illumination each day until it is a new moon where the waxing starts. The waxing moon slowly illuminates from right to left. There are three stages, the crescent, gibbous, and quarter.

A lunar phase or phase of the moon refers to the appearance of the illuminated portion of the Moon as seen by an observer, usually on Earth. The lunar phases vary according to the positions as the Moon orbits the Earth, according to the changing relative positions of the Earth, Moon and Sun. One half of the lunar surface is always illuminated by the Sun except during lunar eclipses, and it is bright, but the portion of the illuminated hemisphere that is visible to an observer can vary from 100% (full moon) to 0% (new moon). The boundary between the illuminated and unilluminated hemispheres is called the terminator
1 lunar cycle = 29.53059 days

Earth's Seasons/Eclipse

Copernicus was born in 1473. He explained to the world how the sun was the center of the solar system, not the Earth. This led to today's understanding about the sun and Earth.

We have seasons because of the way the Earth tilts towards the sun. The solstices is what makes the night time and day light hours. They usually occur each year on June 20 or 21 and December 20 or 21. The vernal equinox and autumnal equinox are the beginning of Spring and Fall. At these times of the year the sun is usually over the Earth's equator.

Winter isn't warmer because in other places it is summer during that time.

There isn't a lunar eclipse every month because the orbit of the moon and the Earth is always tilted 5 degrees in some direction.

Equinox means equal night which is when day and night are both 12 hours.

Solstice is the changes of the seasons on Summer and Winter

Plate Tectonics

Alfred Wegener was a German polar researcher, geophysicist and meteorologist. During his lifetime he was primarily known for his achievements in meteorology and as a pioneer of polar research.

Convergent : A tectonic boundary where two plates are moving toward each other.

Divergent: A tectonic boundary where two plates are moving away from each other.

Transform boundaries: are places where plates slide sideways past each other.

Plates shifting and rubbing against eachother form cascades.

Convection currents in magma cause the plates to shift.

Rift zone: is a feature of some volcanoes, especially shield volcanoes, in which a linear series of fissures in the volcanic edifice allows lava to be erupted from the volcano's flank instead of from its summit.

Subduction zone: are sites of high rates of volcanism, earthquakes, and mountain building.

Channel Scablands: are a barren, relatively soil-free landscape in eastern Washington, scoured clean by a flood unleashed when a large glacial lake drained.

Rocks and Roles

Sedimentary: This is a type of rock that is formed by the deposition of material at Earth's surface and within bodies of water.

Metamorphic: This is a result of a transformation of a pre-existing rock.

Igneous: Formed through the forming and solidification of magma or lava.

Examples of these rocks are shale or sandstone for sedimentary, hornfells or marble for metamorphic, and obsidian or Hawaii for igneous.

Stratification is the relative social position of persons in a given social group, category, geographical region or other social unit.

The more layers a rock has, the older the rock is. As it gets older more layers will form.

Coral reefs are not only spectacular marine environments, but they are one of the oldest ecosystems (community of plants and animals interacting with their environment) on Earth. They are created by colonies of organisms called coral polyps (pronounced PAH-lips).


Cell// Biology. a usually microscopic structure containingnuclear and cytoplasmic material enclosed by asemipermeable membrane and, in plants, a cellwall; the basic structural unit of all organisms.

Difference// Beyond size, the main structural differences between plant and animal cells lie in a few additional structures found in plant cells. These structures include: chloroplasts, the cellwall, and vacuoles.

Muscle Cells// Muscle cells contain protein filaments of actin and myosin that slide past one another, producing a contraction that changes both the length and the shape of the cell. Muscles function to produce force and motion.

Nerve Cells// Your nervous system contains millions of nerve cells, called neurons. Neurons are highly specialized to transmit messages from one part of your body to another. All neurons have a cell body and one or more fibers.
Bone Cells// One function of the osteocyte might be the remodeling of the bonethrough growths of new arms on the cell. It is also known that osteocytes can secrete growth factors which activate lining cells or stimulate osteoblasts.

Circulatory// Responsible for getting the blood and lymph through out the body so it can function correctly.

Respiratory// Organs that take and outtake oxygen into the body.

Digestive// Reponsible for getting food into and out of the body salivary glands, mouth, esophagus, stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, small intestine, colon, and rectum are all part of the digestive system.