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Another tackk !
1°Quantifieurs et déterminants
Some and Any : we use some in positive sentences and any in negative sentences. Ex : We bought some flowers. We didn't buy any flowers. We use some when we offer or ask for things. Ex : Could I have some sugar, please ? We often use any with if. Ex : If anyone as any question... Finally we can use any when we can say "it doesn't matter which". Ex : You can take any bus.
No : we use No + a noun. No = not a or not any. Ex : There were no shops open (= there weren't any shops open).
A/AN : we use a/an before a countable noun. Ex : I eat a banana every day, but I like bananas. An umbrella, an animal... We use an when the noun begins with a vowel.
We don't put any article before an uncountable noun. Ex : I eat rice, there is sand in my shoes... Music, water, luck, money, blood are uncountable nouns.
Much, many, little, few : we use much and little with uncountable nouns. Ex : much time, little money... We use many and few with plural nouns. Ex : many friends, few cars... Little = not much, few = not many. A little = some, a small amount. A few = some, a small number.
Who / Which - That : It tells us which person or thing the speaker means. When we talk about a person we use Who and when it is a thing or an animal we use Which. Ex : the woman who lives next door. I like stories which have happy endings. We also use That instead of who, ex : the women that lives next door. That is also for things, more usual that which.
Whose : we use Whose instead of his/her/their. Ex : I met a man whose sister knows you (his sister knows you).
Whom : we use it instead of Who when it is the object of the verb. Ex : Edward is a person whom I admire very much.
Where : we use to when we talk about a place. Ex : I went back to the town where I grew up.
3°Cause, but, condition, concession, opposition
Pour exprimer cause : As / Since / For -
Pour exprimer le but : To/ In order to / so as to - pour, dans le but de... Ex : I told him about it so as to protect you (dans le but de te protéger). So that - pour que, afin que... Ex : I've left a note so that Ted knows where we are.
Pour exprimer la condition : If / Unless / As long as / As soon as /provided
Pour exprimer la concession : Despite / Inspite of / Though / Although / Even though
Pour exprimer l'opposition : While / Whereas / Unlike
Pour exprimer la manière : How
Pour exprimer le temps : as (simultaneous) / since / while
4°Link words, essay
Pour introduire : Firstly / first of all / to begin
Pour développer, ajouter : Moreover / in addition / furthermore / secondly / because / unless / until / as a consequence / besides / for instance (par exemple) / likewise / not to mention / or else (sinon) / rather (début phrase, mieux, plus exactement) /
Pour contredire : While / whereas / yet / but / even though / although / despite / instead/ however / nevertheless (néanmoins, toutefois) /
Pour conclure : To conclude / lastly / finally /
Don't make a big deal out of the passive voice ! It's easy peasy! :-)
Following a little sample table with all the tenses:
Tense Passive Voice
- Simple Present Élodie USES a computer
- Present progressive (Be+ING) Élodie IS USING a computer
- Simple Past Élodie USED a computer
- Present Perfect Élodie HAS USED a computer
- Past Perfect Élodie HAD USED a computer
- Futur Élodie WILL USE a computer
- Conditional Élodie WOULD USE a computer