Recruitment and selection.
This is how most places get their staff. Job adverts tend to be on paper or through the internet, they're sometimes catchy to lure you to the job. If you look through the newspaper you're likely to see job adverts which will most likely include a brief description of the job and sometimes the skills you need for that job.
A CV (curriculum vitae) is a account of your past career, when you apply for a job, the person who wants to hire you will ask for your CV which will tell them what you are capable of. So if you have a good CV you're more likely to get a better job.
This is what you will send of to your employer when you're applying for a job. It is essential to fill it out as if you don't fill it out you won't get the job. It is the simplest way for the employer to get information about you.
Job description is basically a description of the job. It tells you all the information about that job, like the grades needed and what you will be doing in that job- if you get it.
Person Specification is a description of the persons grades, skills, experience, knowledge and other attributes which a candidate must posses to perform the jobs duties.
Shortlisting is narrowing lists down to the last few employees. So say if you had a long list of employees shortlisting would be shortening that long list into a shorter one.
An interview is what you will have to do when you apply for a job. Your employer will ask you questions and you will answer and they will decide whether you're worthy or not.