William James studied functionalism. James was born on January 11, 1842 and died on august 26, 1909. The civil war 1861-1865 was going on and also.
William James was called the father of Psychology. James was best known for pragmatism which is an approach that assesses the truth of meaning of theories or beliefs in terms of the success of their practical application. And Functionalism which is the study of how people and animals adapt to their environment.
This time period affected William James work because of the war that probably helped him with functionalism because of how the war could have affected people in a bad way.