Maria Cardona
Biology- 4th Period

A fish is any member of a paraphyletic group of organisms that consist of all gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with-digits.
Fish live in water.
Fish have a backbone. They are vertebrates.
Fish breathe using gills. They absorb oxygen through the gills.
Almost all fish are cold-blooded.
Some fish have scales.

-Unlike mammals, fish are cold-blooded. This means that they do not maintain a constant internal body temperature; instead, their temperature is greatly influenced by their environment.
-A fish’s fins are used for balance and to help propel and steer through the water.
-Most fish have scales. These overlap in rows and help protect the fish against injuries and infection
-In order to breathe underwater, fish have developed special organs called gills.
-Fish have a unique internal organ known as the swim bladder or air bladder, it helps fish move up or down in the water
-Many fish have excellent vision and can see colors.

-Lepidosireniformes       -Coelacanthiformes      -Polypteriformes         -Acipenseriformes
-Lepisosteiformes           -Amiiformes                    -Hiodontiformes         -Osteoglossiformes
-Elopiformes                   -Albuliformes                  -Notacanthiformes     -Anguilliformes
-Culpeiformes               -Gonorhynchiformes       -Cypriniformes             -Characiformes
-Siluriformes                  -Argentiniformes            -Salmoniformes           -Esociformes
-Ateleopodiformes        -Stomiiforms                   -Aulopiforms                -Myctophiformes
-Lampridiformes          -Polymixiiformes           -Percopsiformes            -Gadiformes
-Ophidiiformes             -Batrachoidiformes       -Lophiiformes               -Gobiesociformes
-Cyprinodontiformes      -Beloniformes            -Atheriniformes         -Stephanoberyciformes
-Beryciformes                 -Zeiformes                    -Gasterosteiformes         -Synbranchiformes
-Scorpaeniformes         -Perciformes                -Pleuronectiformes         -Tetraodontiformes

Beryciformes: -No external ears        -No eye lids.
-Skeleton made of bone                     -Lateral line
-Two chambered heart. Operculum covering the gills. Brain with large optic lobes and cerebellum.
-Skin with mucus gland. Paired fins made of rays and spines, or lobed fins lacking the rays and spines.
-Various types of scales.                   -Marine and fresh water species.
-Gills used for respiration              -External fertilization. Spawning. Oviparous.

Family: Holocentridae
Abundant around coral reefs in warm seas. Characterized by relatively large head, with supra-occipital crest, well-developed serrate spines on the pre-opercle, opercle, and rostrum. Length of spines diminish and head armor forms with development to pre-juvenile stage. Initially Cuvier and Valenciennes identified specimens collected from Indian Ocean.

Genus: Myripristis
Rough scales, prominent fin spines, a large eye, and usually a red coloration. They possess a moderately large mouth, but they are small, obsess a sharp venomous spine at the lower corner of each cheek, and can inflict a painful wound if handled carelessly.


Myripristis adusta:

Myripristis berndti:

Myripristis Jacobus:

Myripristis vittata:

Myripristis formosa:

Myripristis earlei:

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