To Kill a Mockingbird Project

by Arman, Kendall, Eva, and Jane

Thematic Topic

We are different on the outside, but the same on the inside.

Irony/Sarcasm

-It is ironic that Tom Robinson would show pity to the woman who is falsely accusing him of a horrible crime. He knows he will likely be convicted even though he is innocent but he still shows pity on Mayella Ewell.

Literary Criticism

#1: In this criticism, in the paragraph titled Bluejays and Mad Dogs, it talks about how Tim Johnson, the mad dog, represented prejudice and how, like a disease, it spread itself throughout the south. Then, when Atticus kills Tim, it represents how Atticus “killed” racism and prejudice, making it unable to continue to spread itself throughout the south.

#2: According to Johnson, Lee has set technical boundaries for herself. For instance, she limits herself to one point of view; she splits her narrative into two equal parts (the first one dealing with the children's obsession with "Boo" Radley; the second dealing with Tom Robinson's trial); she sets the story in a town that is isolated from change because of geographical boundaries; and she confines herself to only two major symbols (the mockingbird and the child).

Then, when Atticus kills Tim, it represents how he killed racism and prejudice and didn’t allow it to spread itself further.

#3: In this criticism, titled Discovering Theme and Structure in the Novel, talks about the society in Maycomb. One of the major points that was made about how society in Maycomb was like the "caste system." This socially has a lot to do with the race problems in Maycomb, where the African-Americans are the poorest and the whites are the richest, noted throughout the entire story.

Narrator

-In the story To Kill a Mockingbird, the entire story is a flashback.

-In the end and in the beginning, Scout reflects on how this all started/ended.

-“He said it began the summer Dill came to us, when Dill first gave us the idea of making Boo Radley come out,” from Page 1, Chapter 1, shows the beginning of a flashback starting, because of “He said it began,” which is showing basically that the entire story is a flashback.

-In the end, the flashback continues, but this time with foreshadowing. Scout already knows what is going to happen, when she says “He turned out the light and went into Jem’s room. He would be there all night, and he would be there when Jem waked up in the morning.” This also reminds the reader that the entire story is a flashback, because Scout knew something before the reader can determine what’s going to happen.

Characterization- Atticus

a. Direct- According to Bob Ewell, Atticus is a "n****r lover" because he's doing his job and trying to do the right thing in the case.

Indirect- You can refer to Atticus as a caring and understanding person. He treats his kids as though he want to understand what they're trying to explain and actually take the time to listen. This is the same concept when it comes to Tom Robinson. Atticus is his lawyer in the case and he takes the time to get a full understanding of his side of the story.

b. Atticus would be considered a flat character because he doesn't change much throughout the story

c. Atticus would be considered a static character because he didn't really go through a big change in the story

Character Foil

-In To Kill a Mockingbird, Atticus' sister Aunt Alexandra is a foil for Atticus-preferring traditional parenting methods to Atticus' frank discussions with his children, she believes you have to be harsh and use physical punishment to get children to listen, while Atticus believes if you just listen and be understanding then the children will listen to you. In addition, she seems to represent the traditional place of woman in southern society, something which foils Scout's tomboyish ways of wearing pants and beating up kids at school.

-Tim Johnson and Tom Robinson are an example of FOIL because they both were shot and killed even though they were both innocent.

Symbolism

-Mayella Ewell kept red geraniums in her yard that represent "southern white womanhood."

-The fence around the Ewell's house represents the fear and racism of the Southern whites that try to protect this womanhood.

-The white fence is protecting them from the black people near by. This is basically saying that she's scared of black people and what they could possibly do to her, and shows how bad the racial situation is in Maycomb.

Allusion

-In the story, there are many references to Civil War-era times in the early chapters, like references to Confederate generals and events, most likely because Maycomb was a Confederate city.

-There are also biblical references in the book, like in Chapter 5, page 43 of the story, when Scout described Miss Maudie's face as an "Old Testament pestilence."

-In Chapter 24, Scout discusses Mrs. Roosevelt, who was the first lady (presidency-related) at the time.

Sources

Contemporary Literary Criticism. Ed. Jeffrey W. Hunter. Vol. 194. Detroit: Gale, 2005. Literature Resource Center. Web. 2 June 2015.

Smykowski, Adam. "Symbolism and Racism in To Kill a Mockingbird." Readings on "To Kill a Mockingbird". Ed. Terry O'Neill. San Diego, Calif.: Greenhaven Press, 2000. 52-56. Rpt. in Contemporary Literary Criticism. Ed. Jeffrey W. Hunter. Vol. 194. Detroit: Gale, 2005. Literature Resource Center. Web. 2 June 2015.

etress, Christopher. "'To Kill a Mockingbird': Threatening Boundaries." The Mississippi Quarterly 48.2 (1995): 397+. Literature Resource Center. Web. 2 June 2015

Smykowski, Adam. "Symbolism and Racism in To Kill a Mockingbird." Readings on "To Kill a Mockingbird". Ed. Terry O'Neill. San Diego, Calif.: Greenhaven Press, 2000. 52-56. Rpt. in Contemporary Literary Criticism. Ed. Jeffrey W. Hunter. Vol. 194. Detroit: Gale, 2005. Literature Resource Center. Web. 2 June 2015.

"What Is Ironic about the Way Tom Conducts Himself on the Witness Stand?Any Quotations..." (page. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 June 2015.

"Allusions." Allusions. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 June 2015.

Schuster, Edgar J. "Discovering Theme and Structure in the Novel." English Journal (Oct. 1963): 506-511. Rpt. in Contemporary Literary Criticism. Ed. Dedria Bryfonski. Vol. 12. Detroit: Gale, 1980. Literature Resource Center. Web. 3 June 2015.

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