The "Dirty Dozen"
Industrialization Project 2014 P3
- Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin in 1794.
- Cotton gin is a machine that removed the seeds from cotton bolls.
- The machine reduced the labor involved in processing picked cotton, but greatly increased the demand for slaves to work in the fields.
- In the years following the spread of his invention, the cotton industry rapidly grew, and slavery became more widespread throughout the South.
- The invention of the cotton gin caused massive growth in the production of cotton in the United States.
- According to many historians – was the start of the Industrial Revolution.
- Due to its inadvertent effect on American slavery, the invention of the cotton gin is frequently cited as one of the ultimate causes of the American Civil War
- French gunsmith Honoré LeBlanc invented interchangeable parts in the mid-18th century.
- He suggested the gun parts be made from standardized patterns, so that all gun parts would follow the same design and could be easily replaced if broken.
- Today, because of the interchangeable parts, we can replace the broken part easily.
Steam Engine/ Locomotive
The Spanish inventor Jerónimo de Ayanz y Beaumont patented in 1606 the first steam engine.
Thomas Savery was an English military engineer and inventor who in 1698, patented the first crude steam engine.
This forced the water upwards and out of the mine shaft. Then a cold water sprinkler was used to condense the steam. This created a vacuum which sucked more water out of the mine shaft through a bottom valve.
The first practical steam engine was patented by James Watt, a Scottish inventor, in 1769. Steam engines are of various types but most are reciprocal piston or turbine devices.
In 1804, Richard Trevithick (1771-1833) invented the world's first steam-powered train hauled 10 tons of iron and 70 men for nine miles at a speed of five miles an hour in Merthyr Tydvil.
It opened a century whose history would be defined and guided by the expansion of the railway.
In 1913, Henry Ford installs the first moving assembly line for the mass production of an entire automobile. His innovation reduced the time it took to build a car from more than 12 hours to two hours and 30 minutes.
- Improved working conditions
- Workers do no heavy lifting.
- No stooping or bending over.
- No special training required.
- There are jobs that almost anyone can do.
- Provided employment to immigrants.
In 1947, John Bardeen and Walter Brattain, working at Bell Telephone Laboratories, were trying to understand the nature of the electrons at the interface between a metal and a semiconductor. They realized that by making two point contacts very close to one another, they could make a three terminal device - the first "point contact" transistor.
They quickly made a few of these transistors and connected them with some other components to make an audio amplifier. This audio amplifier was shown to chief executives at Bell Telephone Company, who were very impressed that it didn't need time to "warm up".
Bardeen and Brattain received the Nobel Prize in Physics, 1956, together with William Shockley. Shockley had developed a so-called junction transistor, which was built on thin slices of different types of semiconductor material pressed together. The junction transistor was easier to understand theoretically, and could be manufactured more reliably.
- No power consumption by a cathode heater.
- Small size and minimal weight, allowing the development of miniaturized electronic devices.
- Low operating voltages compatible with batteries of only a few cells.
- No warm-up period for cathode heaters required after power application.
- Lower power dissipation and generally greater energy efficiency.
- Higher reliability and greater physical ruggedness.
- Extremely long life. Some transistorized devices have been in service for more than 50 years.
- Complementary devices available, facilitating the design of complementary-symmetry circuits, something not possible with vacuum tubes.
- Insensitivity to mechanical shock and vibration, thus avoiding the problem of microphonic in audio applications.
Microchip was invented by two people - Robert Noyce and Jack Kilby in1958.
The first customer for the new invention was the US Air Force.
Kilby won the 2000 Nobel Prize in Physics for his part of the invention of the integrated circuit.
It’s around us everywhere. Our phones, our laptops, our iPads – all of those things we’re now surrounded by this technology. And the impact that it has has been enormous.
It goes on and on in other fields like health care, weather projections, et cetera. So it’s pervasive and ubiquitous in our lives more than we realize.