Song Dynasty

Emperor Taizu began reigning in the year 960. His capital was in Kaifeng. During his 16 years of rule, he instituted successful policies and won his wars of expansion.

He is known as one who set the policy that most of the governing officials should be Confucian literati who passed the imperial exam. This stabilized the process of dynastic succession by ensuring that empire's administrative staff could carry on their duties when the emperor died. This policy helped to ensure that the officials were very intelligent, literate, and loyal to the government.

Scientific Academies: He also created academies that allowed a great deal of freedom of discussion and thought. These academies proved successful in later years in nurturing world leading scientists for their times.

The officials were also known for achievement in literature and the arts. Their high level of education helped them formulate policies for trade with other countries and introducing new weapons such as rockets and mortars.

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