Temperature Depends on Particle Movement
All matter is made of particles in motion
All matter contains moving particles. This is because all substances that contain matter have kinetic energy. (The energy of motion.) This is where the kinetic theory of matter comes into play. The theory states that all of the particles that are within matter are in constant motion. As a result the amount of kinetic energy within a substance decides the state the matter is in. Solid, liquid, or gas.
Particle Movement : Solid, Liquid, Or Gas?
- The particle movement in a solid is little to none. Particles are not free to move around. They are held and packed together tight. However solid particles to vibrate back and forth in constant motion.
- The particle movement of a liquid are a bit different. Unlike solids, liquids have the ability to glide and slide past eachother with ease. Liquids have more energy than solids which is why they are not rigid and firm.
- The particles of gases are much much different than the rest. Particles in a gas move at rapid speeds. Sometimes gas particles to collide but because they are not attracted to eachother it isn't a problem.
It is important to remember particles do not move at the same pace. This is because all states of matter have a different amount energy which is the deciding factor of a state of matter.
Temperature and its Role
It's a common misconception that temperature is hot warm something is, this is false. Temperature is actually the measure of the average amount of kinetic energy in an object. Many people think that temperature decides the state of matter. But it's actually the other way around. The state of matter decides what temperature a substance is. For example liquids are naturally warmer than solids because they have less energy than solids. The same can be said for gases and liquids. Because gases have more energy than liquids they are often much warmer.
Thermal Expansion is the property that enables household and outdoor thermometers to work. Many a substances affected by themal expansion including steel, concrete, rubber, metal, etc. It's common in solids because the particles of a solid vibrate at a higher temperature than others states. This causes the particles in a solid to expand farther apart little by little. Believe it or not you see an example of thermal expansion prevention everyday in your life. The most prevelant example I is hen your see wither a highways or bridges, often times they will have short segments with slight breaks in them. This ensure safe expansion in the material.