The Renaissance

By: Brandon and Jonas

The Renaissance was a period in Europe between the 1300s and early 1600s where many cultural, intellectual, and architectural advances occurred which would prove to forever shape our sense of Art and the way we think.

Intillectual Legacies

Nicolaus Copernicus was born on February 19, 1473 in Thorn, modern day Torun in Poland. Copernicus theorized that all planets, including Earth, move around the sun. He even thought the earth rotated on it's axis.He spent much of his adulthood building upon his theory. He was a very respected man during his life.His findings were recorded in a book known as On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres. However, this book wasn't published until his much later years.Copernicus died 2 months after his book was published.He was a very respected man during his life. He was even asked by the Catholic church to help make the calendar more accurate.  He is considered the founder of modern Astronomy.

Galileo was born in Pisa, Italy on February 15, 1564. His father wanted him to be a doctor and he went to College to become a doctor. However, Galileo had a natural talent in Mathematics and wasn't into Medical Science. He spent 18 years teaching math and astronomy at the University of Pisa. During his time at college, he questioned Aristotle's theories. In 1609, he built his first telescope. He discovered 4 moons of jupiters. He believed in Copernician Theory and he believed the Earth and all planets in the Solar System moved around the sun. In the famous leaning tower of pisa experiment, where he dropped 2 balls of different mass and weight, he discovered that all objects fall at the same speed. He also discovered that as masses fall, the speed of their descent increases. These discoveries, and more, helped to build mechanical science and laws of motion.In 1616, despite all of Galileo's efforts, the Roman Catholic church sent him an order not to believe in or teach Copernicus' theory. After continuing these things, he was sentenced to life in prison in 1633, he was placed under house arrest. However, he did manage to publish a book in 1638 before his death in 1642.

Gutenburg is credited with the invention of the movable type. This invention forever revolutionized our access to books. He even developed a type of permanent ink, better than anything that had come before it. It made books more affordable and cheap to the general public.His invention was used to print the Gutenberg bible.

Impacts of the Renaissance

The Discovery of America is said to be the biggest achievement of the Renaissance. Columbus went on his journey through the help of Renaissance Mathematicians and Explorers. Philosophers, Scholars,Mathematicians,and Artists alike still use Renaissance methods of inquiry and engineering to do the things we do. The invention of printing has made books much more affordable and accessible. Galileo and Copernicus founded modern science as it is today. The renaissance forever changed the way we think and left a political and economic footprint on the face of the earth.

Economic Conditions

The Renaissance was caused by one reason, money. It was created in Italy because of their wealth at the time. If a society wants to support artists and elaborate buildings they need do be rich. The Italian city-states were wealthy because of how industrialized they were. Each city-sate had their own product, Florence had cloth and Milan had weapons. Another reason for their wealth were the massive amount of trade coming from port cities such as Venice and Genoa. They were able to trade with Islamic empires especially the Ottomans. In order for the Italians to create these textiles they needed a dye that was found only in the Ottomans, until it was found in several mountains in Europe. The Pope gave the mining rights to the Medicis, an Italian family.

Greek/Roman Cultures

During the Renaissance many aspects of Greek and Roman culture were brought back. The largest was the architectural changes. Many of the buildings that were constructed during this time resembled Roman and Greek buildings. Another part of the cultural spread was the ancient Greek texts that were the main type of writings that the European scholars studied.

Artistic Legacies

The Renaissance had many of the greatest artists in history.  Some of the greatest artists of this time were Leonardo da Vinci, William Shakespeare, and Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simon.

Leonardo Da vinci was born in 1452 and died in 1519. He was one of the most famous painters during the Renaissance. As a young teenager he became the apprentice of Andrea del Verrochio. Da vinci helped is master create a painting known as the baptism of Christ. His earliest work was a drawing of the omo valley in 1473. During the late 15th century he spent nearly 20 years in Milan where he was commissioned by the confraternity of immaculate conception where he painted the Virgin of the Rocks and by the monastery of Santa Maria delle grazie to paint the last supper. After the start of the second Italian war he fled to Venice and then back to Florence to paint the Virgin and Child with John the Baptist. His other works include the Mona Lisa, vitruvian man, concepts of a war machine, and a flying machine.

William Shakespeare was born in 1564 and died in 1616. He was one of the Greatest authors of all time. He didn't attend a university. He moved to London in the late 1580s. By 1597 he had created 15 of the 37 plays that he created one of which was Romeo and Juliet which is regarded as the greatest love story of all time. By 1599 he built the largest amphitheater in London.

Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni was born in 1475 and died in 1564. He was an Italian sculptor, painter, architect, poet, and engineer. His works include the statue of David, the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, and the Pieta. He was raised in Florence and encouraged by an important Florentine patron of the arts know as Lorenzo de Medici. He completed the Pieta at the age of 24 which was a statue of the virgin Marry holding the body of Christ. He was then hired to carve a block of marble into what became the statue of David. In 1508 he began to work on the Sistine Chapel in Rome which took 4 years to complete.

Citations

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