Continuity & Change in the United States from 1998-2015 (Copyright Fitzwater Circa 2015)

Throughout the years of 1998-2015, change was constantly brought upon the foreign policy of the United States. Changing the parameters through which it engages with allied and hostile countries, to how it treats and is seen by people inside of its own country. Economics created changes through improved technology, Politics created new opportunities for legal action in foreign and domestic affairs, and Culture changed how foreign entities are viewed, thereby changing the policies with which they are dealt.

1998, Document A: Google Inc. officially founded; the following is an excerpt from the documented history of Google on its site titled "Our History In Depth".

Google: 1998 April


  • Sun co-founder Andy Bechtolsheim writes a check for $100,000 to an entity that doesn't exist yet—a company called Google Inc.
  • Before heading to the Burning Man festival in the Nevada desert, Larry and Sergey incorporate the iconic Man into the logoto keep people informed about where the Google crew would be for a few days—our first doodle.


  • On September 4, Google files for incorporation in California. Larry and Sergey open a bank account in the newly-established company's name and deposit Andy Bechtolsheim's check.
  • Google sets up workspace in Susan Wojcicki's garage on Santa Margarita Ave., Menlo Park, Calif.
  • Larry and Sergey hire their first employee. Craig Silverstein is a fellow CS grad student at Stanford who works at Google for 10+ years before joining education startup Khan Academy.


  • "PC Magazine" reports that Google "has an uncanny knack for returning extremely relevant results" and recognizes us as the search engine of choice in the Top 100 Web Sites for 1998.

Citation and Purpose: Document A

Google Inc., Our History In Depth/Archival Materials/Work, Exchange and Technology/2015, <>...> This archive shows the beginnings of what would soon be a prominent piece of American technology, Google. It shows an increase in technology of the people, and the growing favor to the technological world. The purpose of this archive is to document the events in the year Google Inc. was created before its funding.

Reflection: Document A

In order to trace the origins of the would-be important search engine, this document shows the evolution of technology. This tech would lead the society to rely more on its digital counterpart. The government allowing this shows the changing support for it. This document is relevant to future historians due to the growing reliance on technology, which will be more likely to increase in the future.

Document B: Video portion

2000, Document B: Y2K

Citation and Audience: Document B:

Fox News, December 29, 1999, Fox News Y2K/Visual Materials/Culture/2015, <>> This document was around the time of digital increase. This document was aimed toward the general American public, informing them of the suddenly imperative catastrophe of a new year.

Reflection: Document B:

This document is a classic cultural reaction to the unknown and shows the societal ideals of that age. This is important to historians in the future because it marks a crucial time of economic decrease, and of the changing ideals of the culture. It was a popularly held belief at the time that the coming of the next age would bring upon them a terrorizing fall of economics, causing a country-wide panic.

Document C: 9/11 Motivations Video

2001, Document C: 9/11 Terrorist Attacks

Citation and Audience:, 9/9/06, What motivated the 9/11 hijackers to attack the US?/Visual Materials/America In The World/2015, <> As a long sought-after piece of information, the reasoning for the attacks on the twin towers has been an interest of the American public for quite some time. The actual reasons listed by the man in this photo show the results of America acting in the world, this video is made for the citizens, to explain that reasoning.

Reflection: Document C:

As an issue among the citizens, the reason for the attacks was officially detailed as a result of the "siding" of America with Israel in the Middle East. The terrorist regime was said to disagree with the standing of the U.S. and as such took action against its government, and unfortunately, its towers. This is relevant to the economic growth and welfare of the U.S. since it then justifies immigration security's increase, as well as a change in foreign policy laws to prevent another incident such as this one.

Document D: Bush Tax Cuts image

2010, Document D: Extended Bush-Era taxes passed

Citation and Point of View: Darcy, Jeff, December 11, 2010, Who pays for Bush tax cut compromise: Editorial Cartoon/Visual Material/Work, Exchange and Technology/2015, <> This satirical cartoon comes from the point of view of a working-class male, portraying himself and other working-class people to be as Tiny Tim in this cartoon.

Reflection: Document D:

In this cartoon, the feelings of the general public are to be displayed, Jeff Darcy; the creator of this cartoon, shows these characters due to their well-known characteristics. Scrooge is greedy and represents the upper levels of government, while Tiny Tim is poor and weak, and represents the working middle-class.

Document E: Obama's Re-election speech clip

2012, Document E: Obama's Second Presidency (Audio)

Citation and Purpose:

Learning English, November 9, 2012, President Obama Wins Second Term/Recordings/Politics and Power/2015, <> A symbol of the place in which the ideal of Democracy was at the time, this re-election was completed around the time of changing support for America's ventures into the Middle East for Democracy, showing the ideals of the people and the dominance of democratic ideals in the government.

Reflection: Document E:

President Obama, who had attempted to create a better economy based on his "democratic" ideals, had not been in as much favor with the people as he would have been. This re-election shows a spontaneous recovery of politically democratic ideals among the people, so much so that they re-elected this democratic delegate to lead them once again.

2013, Document F: Frozen

Citation and Purpose: Document F:

Wikipedia, May 29, 2015, Frozen (2013 film)/Archival Material/Culture/2015, <> This was a page dedicated to educating the general public about Frozen and its impact and creation.

Reflection: Document F:

Frozen, described as the "best Disney movie ever" by many influential movie companies and critics. This movie was thought of so highly, for one reason, its ending. Frozen doesn't teach the classic Kissed by a Prince story, and was accepted widely by viewers, showing a change in cultural views of what "love" truly is.

2013, Document G: Afghanistan Invasion (Letter)

Citation and Audience: Document G:, June 22, 2013, "I Am Sorry That It Has Come to This": A Soldier's Last Words/Archival Material/America In The World/2015, <> Directed towards the general public to invoke feelings of sympathy for the family and American soldiers, this letter was leaked to persuade the citizenry to disapprove of the sending of troops to Afghanistan.

Reflection: Document G:

Inside of this letter, Somers (the author) mentions that during his time abroad in Afghanistan, he was called upon to do immoral and unthinkable things for his government. The "leaking" of this letter influenced the American people into creating more policies of self-isolation from the world. When discussing foreign policy in the future, this letter may come up.

Document H: Baltimore commentary sound clip/video:

2015, Document H: Baltimore Riots (Audio)


This clip was taken by the reporters to display the high officials of the party. This was for the citizens who may potentially look at the events of Baltimore and doubt that the government is helping the people.

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