Conflicts between Arabs and Israel

By: Vianney and Jarrad

Arab national states and the problem of Palestine

  • Arab states, except Palestine, gained independence after World War II
  • Zionist dream of a Jewish state in Palestine
    • Zionism affirmed by Balfour Declaration, 1917, and Paris peace talks
    • Britain supported Zionist effort, but limited Jewish migrants to Palestine
  • Conflicts between Arab Palestinians and Jewish settlers, 1920s and 1930s
  • Arab Palestinians resisted both British rule and Jewish settlement violently
  • Increased Jewish migration to escape Nazis; armed for self-protection
  • Independent Arab states opposed a Jewish state

Creation of Israel

  • Unable to resolve conflict, Britain turned Palestine question over to UN, 1947
    • UN proposed dividing into two states, Palestine and Israel; Arabs opposed
  • 1947, British withdrew, civil war broke out, Jews proclaimed the state of Israel
  • Egypt, Jordan, Syria, and Iraq declared war on Israel
    • Israel achieved victory in 1949; claimed territories larger than what was granted by UN plan

The Arab-Israeli Conflict

  • Arab-Israeli conflict arose from the conflict over Palestine and Jerusalem
  • Many Arab-Islamic nations allied themselves with the USSR, while Israel became an ally of the US
  • Israel defeated Egypt and Syria in the 1967 Arab-Israeli War and again in the 1973 Arab-Israeli War (also known as the Yom Kippur War because Israel was attacked on the Jewish holiday of Yom Kippur)
  • Despite the increased tensions created by these wars, they were followed by a series of peace negotiations facilitated by Nasser's successor Anwar Sadat

Peace Negotiations

  • United States help negotiate the peace
  • 1976: Sadat announces Egyptian friendship treaty with the USSR
  • 1977: Sadat travels to Israel in an attempt to negotiate
  • 1978-1980: A series of peace treaties signed by Egypt and Israel
  • 1981: Sadat assassinated, Arab states and the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) worked to isolate Egypt
    • PLO: organization representing displaced Palestinians that advocated for their rights and attempted to reclaim Palestine
  • 1990s: PLO negotiates with Israel to end Hostility
    • 1993-1995: Arafat (PLO founder and leader) and Yitzkah Rabin (Israeli prime minister) sign peace treaties

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