Eighth Grade Health

Jack Glenn- Period 8

The Endocrine System

The endocrine system is a chemical communication system that controls many body functions. It is responsible for the fast growth experienced during your teen years. The endocrine system is made up of glands located throughout the body. The glands produce hormones, each of which has a specific job. They are responsible for adolescence.

The Male Reproductive System

The male reproductive system is how a male's body prepares for making a child. It contains many of the parts needed to produce sperm and fertilize the female's egg. Its parts include the seminal vessicles, prostate gland, Cowper's Glands, urethra, penis, testes, scrotum, vas deferens, and the epididymis.

Female Reproductive System

The female reproductive system is how the body reproduces. The body system gets the fertilized egg and nurtures it, growing it into a child. Its parts include the ovaries, the fallopian tubes, uterus, endometrium, cervix, and the vagina.

The female body prepares for it's egg to be fertilized with the menstrual cycle. Egg cells are released by the ovaries in a process called ovulation. If the egg isn't feritilized, the uterus lining breaks down and is shed by the body through menstruation, when the lining material, unfertilized egg, and some blood flow out of the body.

Pregnancy and Labor

Fertilization is the union of a single sperm and an ovum, or an egg. This fertilized egg is transferred to the urethra. The amniotic sac protects the embryo, or the now growing egg.The placenta is a structure that forms along the lining of the uterus as the embryo implants in the uterus. The umbilical cord connects the embryo and the mother's placenta.At the end of the eighth week of development, the embryo becomes a fetus.

Prenatal care is care occurring or existing before the birth of the fetus. Good prenatal care is important, as the baby can have disorders or defects.

A normal or full term pregnancy lasts 40 weeks.

Labor is a process by which contractions gradually push the baby out of the uterus and in to the vagina to be born. In the first stage of labor, contractions gradually open the cervix to a diameter of around 4 inches. This process is called dilation. The amniotic sac ruptures. This is commonly known as "water breaking". The first stage may last for 12 hours or longer. Once the mother is in the second stage of labor, the cervix is fully dilated. The mother pushes the baby's heat through the cervix and into the vagina. The mother continues to push until the baby is delivered. This stage generally lasts from half an hour to two hours.

The third stage of labor lasts about 20 minutes. Contractions separate the placenta, or afterbirth, from the uterine wall and expel the placenta from the uterus and out of the body, through the vagina.

Some mothers need a cesarean birth, or a C-Section. This is when a surgical incision is made through the abdominal wall and the uterus. The baby is lifted out through the surgical incision.


An STD is a sexually-transmitted disease. STDs can be viral or bacterial. You cannot tell if someone has an STD by their physical appearance. Most STDs can not be cured. Some can be treated. They can cause sterility, blindness, deafness, insanity, and even death.

Some STDs include chlamydia, genital herpes, genital warts, trichomoniasis, gonorrhea, syphilis, and pelvic inflammatory disease.

A good way to prevent getting an STD is to abstain from sexual activity.


HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is the virus that causes AIDS. It is a sexually transmitted disease. It attacks T cells and replaces the genetic information of the T cells with its own genetic information.

AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) is a deadly disease that interferes with the body's natural ability to fight infection. It allows opportunistic infections, infections that rarely occur in a healthy person.

The scary thing about HIV is that a person can be a carrier for ten years or more before starting to show symptoms of AIDS, allowing them to spread it to even more people. HIV can be spread from contact with sperm, vaginal fluid, blood, and breast milk. It does not spread through breathing in the air, being bitten by a mosquito, swimming in a pool, or sharing utensils.

There is no cure for HIV or AIDS.


To decide not be sexually active until marriage is called abstinence. Abstinence is a smart move, because your chances of getting an STD are virtually impossible. It also is good to practice abstinence from alcohol, drugs, and tobacco. Abstinence from these help make smart choices.

Good ways for practicing abstinence are as follows:
-Avoid being alone on a date.

-Communicate your limits to a date.

-Participate in group activites.

-Know how to respond to pressure.

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