Biotic (living) Factors
African Elephant Acacia Senegal
African Wild Dog Boabab
Black Mamba Bermuda Grass
Caracal Candelabra Tree
Chacma Baboon Elephant Grass
Egyptian Mongoose Gum Tree Eucalyptus
Emu Jackalberry tree
Grant's Zebra Jarrah Tree
Koala Bear Kangaroo Paw
Lion Manketti Tree
Nigriceps Ants River Bushwillow
Nile Crocodile Umbrella Thorn Acacia
The maximum number of an organism that an environment can hold
*The savanna can only hold up to 56 Cheetahs
*It can only hold up to 550 Lions
*It can only hold up to 34 Wild Dogs
These are only approximate values
Limiting factors are environmental factors that limit the size of populations
*There is very little water, especially during the dry season, causing organisms to dehydrate.
*All rainfall comes over a 6 month span leaving the other 6 months to be dry and hot, this makes the ground crack, leading to animals injuring themselves by misplacing their feet.
*The overall availability of water is so small that organisms have to adapt to having such little water, this is hard for young animals that haven't already
THE THREE ROLES ARE
As we all know, the producers are plants. They play this role very well considering the are the main source of food in an ecosystem. Without the producers we wouldn't be able to get energy from the sun and herbivores would die off. This reaction would cause an entire ecosystem to collapse. It would be catastrophic.
Consumers are the organisms that eat other organisms. The consumer role has three levels of it's own. They are primary consumers, secondary consumers, and tertiary consumers. Primary consumers eat plants. Secondary consumers eat the primary consumers. Tertiary consumers eat the secondary consumers.
Decomposers are very important because without them the ecosystem would collapse. The decomposers are organisms that eat dead organisms and transfer the energy from them to nutrients in the soil they create. Examples of decomposers are fungi, bacteria, some micro organisms, e.t.c.
Food Chains & Food Webs
Which is more realistic?
The food web is more realistic because it interconnects multiple food chains. This gives the organisms in it a chance to eat/be eaten by more than one thing. Also in a food web you can put more organisms than in a food chain because it's not just one after the other.
What would happen if you removed the mouse?
If you were to remove the mouse species, the caracal would have nothing to eat so their population would decrease till eventually they become extinct like the mouse. This would then cause the snake to have no food so they would die off as well. Their death would cause the ape to eat more crickets, so the cricket population might die off causing the ape, bird, and skunk to die off as well. Oh and the grass population would increase.
Trophic Levels & Energy Pyramids
Bottom Level: Plant life (100 kcals)
Middle Level: Zebra (10 kcals)
Top Level: Lion (1 kcal)
Why is it shaped like a pyramid?
It is shaped like a pyramid so that you can see how big the populations are as you move up. The plant life is the largest because they create their on energy. When the zebra eats the plants it only gets 10% of the kcals because the plants used 90% in it's daily cycle. Then the lion gets 10% of what the zebras got because the zebras use 90% of the kcals in their daily cycle.
For photosynthesis, there needs to be sunlight, carbon dioxide (co2), water and certain minerals.
After photosynthesis is done, the plant will have sugar in its body so that other organisms can eat them and get energy from them, and it will also produce oxygen as its waste product, giving humans and other organisms what we need to live.
Where does Photosynthesis take place?
Photosynthesis takes place in chloroplast which is in the leaf cells. Inside the chloroplast is chlorophyll, which is what actually changes the radiant energy from the sun into the chemical energy it needs to make its food.
What are the types of tropisms?
There is Phototropism, Geotropism, Thigmotropism and Hydrotropism.
What is Phototropism?
Phototropism is the movement to light in plants.
Sunflowers are a great example.
What is Geotropism?
Geotropism is the movement either towards or away the center of gravity.
There is Positive Geotropism which is towards gravity.
Then there's Negative Geotropism which is away gravity.
The roots are affected by positive geotropism, which is why they go downward into the ground. The stem is affected by positive geotropism, which is why they go upward away from the ground
What is Thigmotropism?
Thigomotropism is plants reacting/moving due to touch.
Vines are a good example.
What is Hydrotropism?
Hydrotropism is the reaction/movement to water.
Roots are the best example for this.
This is just a more descriptive section from the Energy Roles area for the decomposers.
What is a decomposer?
A decomposer is an organism that decomposes other organisms into nutrient rich soil. Without this soil, plants wouldn't get the minerals they need to carry out photosynthesis. Also there would just be layers of bones, rotten flesh/meat, leaves and other gross leftovers.
What types of decomposers are in the savanna?
In the savanna there are three main decomposers.
Bacteria, Fungi and Termites.
Why are adaptations important?
Adaptations are important because without them plants and animals wouldn't be able to evolve or, adapt ;), to their ecosystem, the savanna. Adaptations are things like changing color to blend in to the environment to avoid predators. The two types of adaptations are structural and behavioral.
What adaptations do plants and animals commence?
Most animals migrate during the dry season.
The elephant uses its strength to break into trees for water.
The baobab tree has a large water storage for the dry season.
The acacia only grows leaves during the wet season.
The acacia tree is fire proof and can last longer in the dry season.
What would happen to the Acacia tree if placed in a different environment/ecosystem?
If you were to try and grow an acacia tree in your yard, not only would it die quite quickly, but it will completely fall over and damage your lawn. And even if it didn't die, it would be an ugly tree to have. Its leaves wouldn't grow till a certain time period, and it would take in as much water as it can, causing your other plants to lose their regular amounts. This would cause them to either die or shrivel.