sugar was discovered by Persians in india. It most likely originated in Polynesia but spread. Arab people further spread sugar to Europe in the 11th century where it was refined in Venice. After the Caribbean was discovered, Europeans realized they could grow sugar there quite effectively. From here it became part of the triangle trade.
Europeans used sugar to sweeten tea during this era.
Schwarzwälder Kirschtorte or Black Forest cake is a German dish that uses sugar
the croissant is a dish made in France using sugar
when Europeans realized they could grow sugar fairly easy in the Caribbean they began exploiting the people in the area as slaves and exporting mass amounts back to Europe. Sugar lead to mass amounts of slaves being transported to the Americas and changed history heavily. Sugar became important in Europe to the rich and was used as a sweetener for normally bad tasting food.