The History Of Books...
35,000 BC - The earliest known human cave paintings, their origins in Spain. Cave walls formed the first medium for art and official record; using insects, blood and bone to create the necessary colours, humans recorded events such as hunting triumphs, births, deaths and religious festivals.
3,000 BC - The clay tablets of Mesopotamia and the papyrus scrolls of Egypt become the world's earliest known books.
1,300 BC - The Chinese begin using books made of wood and bamboo strips to record everything from religious festivals and battle histories to poetry and food recipes.
100 BC - The ancient library of Alexandria opens. Books flourish in the land of Egypt.
8BC - The earliest use of paper as a writing medium in China.
1040 - The world's first movable type printing technology is developed by China.
1450 - Johannes Gutenberg improves movable types printing.
1456 - The bible becomes the first ever book printed using a printing press.
1605 - The world's first newspaper debuts in Germany, entitled the 'Relation'.
1731 - The world's first magazine debuts in London. Entitled 'The Gentleman's Magazine', it is extremely popular with upper class men.
1790 - The camera is invented by Thomas Wedgewood.
1796 - Lithography is invented, enabling high quality images to be printed. It is, however, an expensive process.
1843 - The steam powered rotary printing press is invented; reducing costs, it brings books to the masses.
1847 - The beginning of photojournalism. An unknown photographer takes a picture during the Mexican-American war, recording events for all to see.
1886 - The linotype machine is invented. This revolutionises typesetting and reduces labour.
1892 - The four colour rotary press is invented.
1899 - National Geographic begins to publish.
1904 - Offset lithography becomes common.
1922 - Readers' Digest debuts.
1923 - Time magazine arrives.
1925-1967 - Magazine 'space' explodes.
1982 - TCP/IP protocol is standardised and the concept of the internet takes hold.
1983 - The era of desktop publishing begins.
1985 - Aldus PageMaker software and Apple LaserWriter printer are introduced.
1990 - Most newspaper now use digital production and layout techniques.
1993 - IBM invents the world's first Smartphone. They name it 'Simon'.
1995 - Amazon goes online as a bookstore selling physical books to the masses. Book sales rise.
1996 - Jacobsen and Comiskey patent E-ink technology (eBooks/eReader technology).
1996 - Traditional newspapers begin developing online versions for the internet.
1998 - Google is founded. This improves information retrieval on the internet.
1999 - Blogger is founded and self-publishing on the web takes off.
2004 - The beginning of Facebook.
2005 - YouTube goes online.
2005-2006 - News and information blogs rise in popularity and number.
2007 - Amazon releases Kindle. Soon E-Ink (eBook) readers gain traction.
2007 - Apple launches iPhone. Mobile phones become an essential medium for web/information consumption.
2008 - Apple launches 'App' store.
2010 - Apple announces iPad, the first tablet computer.
2010-2011 - Tablets continue to surge in popularity, increasing the sale of eBooks worldwide.
2011 - Amazon reports eBook sales surpassing printed books for the first time.
2012-2015 - Printed book sales are down to that of eBooks. However, on average, people are reading more than ever before, with book sales over 20% higher compared to that of 2010!
Hagen R and Hagen M (1999) Egypt Cologne: Taschen
Mitchenson J (2006) The Book of General Ignorance Chatham: Faber and Faber
The History of Publishing (2013) GalleyCat [Online] Available at:
http://www.adweek.com/galleycat/timeline-a-brief-history-of-publishing/80154 Accessed [January 2015]
The Printing Press (2014) About.com [Online] Available at:
http://inventors.about.com/od/gstartinventors/a/Gutenberg.htm Accessed [January 2015]
Cave of Altamira, Northern Spain (2012) UNESCO [Online] Available at:
http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/310 Accessed [January 2015]
Ebooks (2014) NewRepublic [Online] Available at:
http://www.newrepublic.com/ Accessed [January 2015]