In the early 1800s, the East India Company started to implement British policies. British officials introduced Western education and legal procedures. They also pressed for social change, such as ending slavery and the caste system. In the 1850s, the British gave Indian soldiers, sepoys, were given new rifles. They were told to bite the tip off of the cartridge before loading them. The sepoys didn't want to do that because they thought the cartridge was greased with animal fat, so they refused. Every sepoy who refused was imprisoned.
Sepoys rose up against the British officers. Several sepoy regiments marched off to Delhi and hailed the last Mughal ruler as their leader. The British soon rallied and crushed the revolt. They then took revenge for their losses. The Sepoy Rebellion left a bitter legacy of fear, hatred, and mistrust on both sides. It also brought major changes in British policy.
Britain saw India as both a market and a source of materials. The British ended this by making improved transportation. This made Britain sell their factory-made goods across the subcontinent and carry natural goods to coastal ports for transport to factories in England. The British also introduced improvements to medicine and farming which led to a rapid population growth. The bigger population put a strain on food, so there were many famines in India. British rule brought some degree of peace and order to the countryside, such as revising the legal system, transportation helpful to the Indians, and the telegraph and postal system that improved communications.
There were two different views on culture in India; following the Western model of progress or to lay with the Indians' own Hindu or Muslim cultures. A man named Ram Mohun Roy combined both of those views in the 1800s. Roy saw the value of Western education, but he also wanted to reform traditional Indian culture.
In 1885, nationalist leaders organized the Indian national Congress. Its members believed in peaceful protest to gain their ends. They called for greater democracy, wich they felt would bring more power to Indians. They looked forward to self-rule, but they supported the Western-style modernization.