IGCSE Biology Revision - Sota


Names of Defficiencies

Vitamin C deficiency - Scurvy

Vitamin D deficiency - Rickets

Food Tests

Types of Food Tests

Benedict Reagent/Solution - Reducing Sugar

Ethanol - Fat

Benedict - Glucose

Biuret - Protein

Iodine - Starch

Positive Results


Benedict - Brick Red


Digestive system Order

1) Mouth

2) Osophogus

3) Stomach

4) Small Intestines

5) Large Intestines

6) Anus



What are enzymes?

Enzymes are a biological catalyst that speeds up the rate of a reaction, without using itself up.

Denatured Enzymes

Enzymes start to denature as they go past the optimum temperature. This is because once the temperature goes over the best working conditions for the enzymes, their active site will start to change shape, and therefore not being able to speed up reactions.

How the active site works (Diagram + Explanation)


Enzymes have active sites, which fits with a solution to speed up the reaction. As you can see in the diagram, the solutions come into the active site of the enzyme and separates when the reaction is done.

Enzyme Temperature (Diagram + Explanation)


As the temperature rises, the rate of reaction will keep on increasing as well as the enzymes will have more kinetic energy, increasing the amount of successfull collisions for the reaction to happen.

Extra Key Notes

Describing and Explaning

Describing and Explaning may sound the same, but they are not the same at all. Describing is telling how something looks, and explaning is telling how something works. In tests, there usually will be separate questions for each.

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