by Savana Schanoski and Emily Frost
What are the Crusades?
The Crusades were wars blessed by Pope Urban II and the Catholic Church, with the goal of restoring Christian access to the holy places in and near Jerusalem. The most important and largest Crusades happened from the 11th century to the 13th century. These are numbered Crusades 1 through 9.
How were they started?
The First Crusade began when the Seljuk Turks took over of the Holy Land. Before this the Arabs had been in control of the land. However, the Arabs had allowed Christians to go and visit the city of Jerusalem. In 1070, when the Turks took control, they would not let any Christians enter the area. The emporer at the time declared a crusade to push the Turks out of the Holy Land, with help from the Christians.
The First Crusade
Alexius was a ruler of the Byzantine Empire. Alexius wanted to go to war against the Seljuk Turks to defend his empire, so he asked Pope Urban the 2nd and all Christians to fight with him. The Christians were called Crusaders. The Crusaders, and Alexius' army started towards Jerusalem.
The Crusaders and the army won the battle for Jerusalem, but killed very many people. This crusade was fought to defend Alexius' empire, but also for the Holy Land.
The Second Crusade
When the town of Edessa was attacked by the Turks, St. John of Clairvaux had declade another crusade. He was defeated.
The Third Crusade
When Saladin recaptured Jerusalem, Pope Gregory the 8th started a new crusade. This crusade was led by Europian kings, such as: Phillip the 2nd of France, Richard the 1st of England and Frederick the 1st, Holy Roman Emperor.
After agreeing to stop the fighting with Saladin, the crusade had ended.
The Fourth Crusade
Pope Innocent the 3rd started the Fourth Crusade in 1201 because he wanted ro attack the Holy Land through Egypt. Unexpectedly the Venetians changed this crusade and went to Constantinople instead.
The Fifth Crusade1213
Frederick the 2nd lead the Fifth Crusade, but only because Pope Gregory the 9th made him do it.
The Sixth Crusade
Frederick the 2nd set sail for Syria for the Fifth Crusade after the Pope excommunicated him. Jerusalem, Nazareth and Bethlehem were given to the Crusaders for ten years without fighting.
The Seventh Crusade
A crusade was started against Egypt by Loius the 9th of France. He started it because Egypt attacked Jerusalem. This crusade was a failure.
The Eighth Crusade
Louis the 9th organized this crusade to help the Crusader states in Syria.
The Ninth Crusade
Before retiring, Edward the 1st of England started a crusade, which caused the Crusader states to lose everything.
-"God wills it" was the battle cry of the Crusaders. The Pope had said it during a speech he gave before the First Crusade
-the symbol of the Crusaders was a red cross
-around 120,000 people were in the First Crusade