Industrial Revolution Project

By: Megan Gahl

Industrial Innovations:

Steam Power

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- In 1712, Thomas Newcomen created the first successful steam engine. It pumped water from deep coal mines. This engine was not very efficient.

- James Watt invented a steam engine condenser in 1765 which was more efficient.

- By 1780 steam power started to replace water power as the main source of power in manufacturing.

- It wasn't until that steam powered engines had rotary motion they used to just be able to move in vertical motions.

- In the 1800s high pressure steam engines were invented. They had 30 pounds of pressure.

- By 1800 most cotton yarn was spun by steam. Factories did not combine powered spinning and weaving until after 1815.


Iron Making

- Iron production began in 1758.

-To melt the iron they used "coke" which was more pure than coal and was hotter when burned. This made a more pure iron called pig iron.

-Iron was used to make many things. Some of the most common are machine frames, water pipes, and rails.

- Henry Cort came up with a new iron making technique called puddling in 1784. It removed all non-pure materials which left pure iron making it easier to be shaped and hammered when the iron is cool.

Glass Making

- Friedrich Siemens invented a tank furnace. It made a mass production of glass more possible.

-Huge demands for glass were bringing factories to work together to get the production out.

- Glass was used for many things lamps, medicine and food packaging, and tableware.

- In the 19th century, Michael Owens invented an automatic bottle glass blowing machine which required no human work. It also made things go faster and were cheaper.

Social Effects:

Child Labor

- Kids could be as young as six years old and work for nineteen hours with a one hour break total with little to no pay.

- With the huge machinery being so heavy and dangerous kids were often times killed or seriously injured by them.

- They were treated badly during work too. They got physically abused and they got called names.

- Maybe too late for some but Child Labor Movements came along which helped a lot. It regulated hours of work and payment.

Population Increase

- Technology advanced and so did medicine making humans healthier.

- Not as many people died from diseases because they could be cured.

- Having the new medicines kept diseases from spreading to many people and taking out a lot of the population.

- Healthy people lead to healthy families.

Standards of Living

- Standards of living were pretty low until wages started to increase.

- Once peoples wages were raised they had more money to provide for their families.

- More money meant better homes and more food.

- In English cities wages were higher than on the countryside but so was rent. Which meant more of your money was going to your home and less to things your family needs like food and clothes.

- Some also say the quality of life was lower too.

Bibliography