Communism Over Time
During the industrial revolution, capitalists ideas had caused tension between the working class (proletariats) and the factory owners (bourgeoise). The proletariats had become tired of the struggle to survive while their labor enriched the factory owners and set to seek out a new ideology to gain more power.
Marx- "Philosophical Father of Communism"
Marx published the book The Communist Manifesto that became the foundation to communist theory. He believed that history told the struggle between classes for control of wealth. He wrote "the proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains. They have the world to win. Working men of the world unite!" in reference to the working class violently overthrowing the middle class factory owners, bourgeoisie. In result of this "revolution", everyone would be equal and classes would expire and a dictatorship would be established.
capitalism- an economic and political system in which a country's trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state.
revolution- a forcible overthrow of a government or social order in favor of a new system.
ideology- a system of ideas and ideals, esp. one that forms the basis of economic or political theory and policy.
When industrialization had occurred in Russia during the 1900's revolutionaries sparked following the idea's of Karl Marx, who had laid the foundation of communist ideas. The proletariats at the time had wanted to overthrow the Czar ruler. The Bolshevik revolution lead by Vladimir Lenin stormed the Winter Palace and took control of the Provisional Government establishing a slogan "Peace, Land, Bread" that gave farmland to peasants.
Lenin- "Father of Revolution"
After gaining power and respect from many Russians, Lenin created the New Economic Policy (NEP) that mixed ideas of capitalism and socialism. Under the NEP peasants were allowed to sell surplus crops instead of turning to the government. The policy also allowed for small, private factories and businesses, however the government controlled major industries, banks, and means of communication. Lenin believed that peasants were not capable of starting a revolution (unlike Marx's ideas) therefore they needed a "push" from the communists. In addition to Marx's ideas of communism, Lenin believed the revolution would end with guidance of a single party and not a dictatorship.
communism- a political theory derived from Karl Marx, advocating class war and leading to a society in which all property is publicly owned and each person works and is paid according to their abilities and needs.
Czar- Czar is the most common form in American usage and the one nearly always employed in the extended senses "any tyrant" or informally, "one in authority." ; A male monarch or emperor, especially one of the emperors who ruled Russia until the revolution of 1917
Bolsheviks- radical, communist party under the influence of Lenin's ideas
During 1912, (two years before WWI) the Republic of China was about to collapse under the rule of the Kuomintang so with the help of Sun Yixian and the 1911 Revolutionary Alliance, he set three goals: nationalism, democracy, and provide work. He ended up lacking authority so through new government civil war occurred. Three years after the war, Mao Zedong came into power and organized the Chinese Communist Party.
Zedong- "Along the Road to Liberation"
Zedong used the youth of China to help start the revolution of communist ideas. The youth group was known as the Red Guards, quite similar to Lenin's Red Army. He believed that communism could only occur in rural areas and peasants could be leaders of the revolution like Marx had believed. However Marx believed that revolution for communist ideas would spark in areas that had already gone through industrialization. Zedong, Marx, and Lenin believed communism would occur because of differences between classes. They all believed that the power should fall within the peasants because they all believed that the peasants should have equal rights.
Although communism had remained successful for these influential leaders, not everyone agreed with their ideals/beliefs. Many people were against communist theory and practices in countries like Germany and Italy during the Inter-War year. These leaders known as Hitler and Mussolini favored an ideal known as fascism.
Mussolini- First Fascist Regime
Mussolini served in the army during WWI and when he returned home he wanted to unify the Italian people under a dictatorship. He made speeches that told how only a strong, single leader would help overcome Italy's post-war mass unemployment, political party conflicts, and strikes by socialists and communists. He got an army of street fighters called "Blackshirts" to beat up socialists and communists. He wanted to establish an empire where people must give up their private needs in order to serve the needs of the whole society, one leader made decisions for the good of the people, and bring capitalism back where the state controls the economy. He succeeded by doing so with 66% vote for a fascist party during the election for a new Italian parliament. All political parties were illegal except for the fascist party.
Hitler- "Nazi Der Fuher (leader)"
Hitler was an Austrian that resided in Germany and was part of the German army. He believed that Germany must overturn the Treaty of Versailles and combat communism. He did so by building up his own army known as the Storm Troopers, aka Brown Shirts, with the help of the National Socialist German Worker's Party (Nazis). In addition to building up his leadership, he made powerful speeches that allowed him to become leader of the party. Moreover, he attempted to seize power of Munich after being inspired by Mussolini's fascist ideas. However, he failed and was arrested on accounts of treason and sent to prison. While in prison, he wrote Mein Kampf (My Struggle) which outlined his goals for Germany. The Nazi party grew more powerful and they target communists. Totalitarian policies followed in order to ensure their power and led to anti-semitism, which in turn, became the key idea of ideology along with their fascist and totalitarianistic tactics.
fascism- extreme nationalism, militarism, corportism, absolute power/dictatorship
totalitarianism-a political system in which the state holds total authority over the society and seeks to control all aspects of public and private life wherever possible.
dictatorship-government by a dictator
regime-a government, esp. an authoritarian one
treason-the crime of betraying one's country, esp. by attempting to kill the sovereign or overthrow the government.
anti-semitism- hatred of Jewish people
North Korea - Socialist Country
North Korea began to be influenced by communist ideas after the war of WWII. North Korea, officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, continues to be a socialist state under the rule of the Workers Party of Korea. Their leader after the war, Kim II-sung, introduced the personal philosophy of Juche, or self-reliance. Small businesses are still allowed however it is now more of a communistic dictatorship because it is ruled by one leader, Kim Jong Un, that decides for the good of the country rather than resting the power with the people themselves.
My Personal Reaction .
I believe that communist ideas and practice of it was a good idea at the time. During my research for the different countries I learned that it suited their government best because times were different. Many people needed some sort of power because their rulers were misusing their own. As of now I do not agree with communism because our democratic government seems to work fine for our economic and political issues because the times have changed. Many people now need guidance from a leader but still have their own rights so the balance is just right and in our favor as a people because we do have that guidance that we need and our social classes aren't striving to be greater than the other. We know our place and the power that we do have. Democracy is what works best for us in the present. I believe that democracy will still remain a powerful form of government because it has been successful for many years and we have the power to impeach our authority.