Types of Rocks
Sedimentary: Formed by sediment which is deposited over time.
Metamorphic: Formed by extreme amounts of Pressure & heat.
Igneous: Formed when magma cools & solidifies.
Sedimentary Rock: Limestone, Breccia, Coal, Rock Salt, etc.
Metamorphic Rock: Amphibolite, Quartzite, Schist, Slate, Marble, etc.
Igneous: Andesite, Basalt, Pumpice, Granite, etc.
Stratification is the formation, or system of forming layers, or categories, as shown in the pictures below.
How can the Age of Landforms be Estimated?
When trying to study landforms & how far they date back, you can easily find this out by the thickness/ type of rock or the types of fossils found in the layers. Rocks are formed many ways, and one way that creates layers is sediment building upon the bottom of a lake, or pond. Over time, this sediment will harden, & then the same process will occur. & very often, an organism could get into this process, & it gets stuck between the layers, and hardens, which makes it become a fossil. In a simpler way, this process is like building a cake, in which that you put separate layers onto the cake, & something could get stuck in the cake, like a it of an eggshell, or something could get stuck between the layers when you are trying to put them on. A way to figure out how old the layers are is by finding a key element that happened during the time period, like a volcano eruption. If you can figure out when a volcano erupted in the past, then everything underneath the volcanic ash, or dried magma, which is igneous rock, is before the eruption. Everything on top of it is after.
How can Older Layers of Rock be on top of Newer Layers?
There are many reasons for this to occur, one of them being a gap in the forming of layers. Say that when the sediment was forming into a layer, there was a gap in between the other layers. After this current layer of sediment forms, & when the next layer is in the process, it gets underneath the layer that just formed. Or an animal digs a hole in between layers, and the new sediment fills up the hole it dug.
How Have Organisms Shaped Landforms?
They have dug holes in the formed layers, which allows new sediment to follow into the hole after them.
They create dams, which build lakes.
They eat vegetation, which creates erosion.
Video on the Rock Cycle
Definition: The structural, functional, & biological unit of all organsims.
There are two main types of cells, plant cells & animal cells. There are also many differences between the two, like:
- Animal cells are round, while plant cells are rectangular.
- Animal cells have one or more small vacuoles, while the plant cells have one big vacuole that takes up 90% of the cell's volume.
- Plant cells have chloroplast & plastids, while animal cells do not.
- Animal cells only have a cell membrane, while plant cells have a cell wall & cell membrane.
Adipose: This is a tissue that stores energy in the form of fat.
Bone: Bones have many functions for your body, but the main function is to provide a structure for the body & a framework for muscle & other tissues to grow on.
Cartilage: Cartilage prevents bones from rubbing against each other at joints, such as the knee.
Tissue & Organs
Digestive, Circulatory, & Respiratory Systems
Punnett Squares & Genotypes
G: Dominant Traits
g: Recessive Traits
Adaptation: "A change or the process of change by which an organism or species becomes better suited to its environment."
Evolution: "The process by which different kinds of living organisms are thought to have developed and diversified from earlier forms during the history of the earth."
Species: "A group of living organisms consisting of similar individuals capable of exchanging genes or interbreeding."
Gene: "A unit of heredity that is transferred from a parent to offspring and is held to determine some characteristic of the offspring."
Genetic: "Of or relating to genes or heredity."
Sexual Production: "The production of new living organisms by combining genetic information from two individuals of different types."
Asexual Reproduction: "A mode of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single organism, and inherit the genes of that parent only."
Desert: A barren area, which is dry, with extreme temperatures & scarce wildlife.
Prarie: Extensive flat or rolling area dominated by grasses.
Woodlands: Low density forest.
Rainforest: Forests with high rainfall, & many different species of plants & animals.
Tundra: Rare plants & low temperatures.
Decomposer: Organism that breaks down materials such as plants or dead animals.
The worms were classified as decomposers.
Consumer: Organsim that eats other organsims.
Foxes are classified as consumers because they eat other animals, such as rabbits.
Ecosystem: "A biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment."
Polar bears ofen live in colder ecosystems, such as Antarctica.
Producer: Organism that produces nutrients for itself, such as plants.
Producers are plants, such as sunflowers.
Food Chain: "A succession of organisms in an ecological community that arelinked to each other through the transfer of energy and nutrients,beginning with an autotrophic organism such as a plant andcontinuing with each organism being consumed by one higher inthe chain."
The start of the food chain begins with the sun, which often heads to plants, like grass, which then animals eat, and so on.
Biotic: Produced or caused by living organisms.
Animals, such as pandas or pigs or SYDNEY are biotic.
Abiotic: Nonliving/ characterized by the abscence of plants & animals.
Water, rocks, and other nonliving items are classified as abiotic.
Adaptation: Often occuring through natural selection, a species becomes better adapted to the environment for the better.
Animals use the process of adaptation to better fit in with their environment.
There are many biotic & abiotic factors that make up a wetland ecosystem, such as:
Biotic: Flowers, Trees, Any Species of Animal, Etc.
Abiotic: Water, Sunlight, Rocks & Minerals, Soil, Wind, etc.
Energy enters the ecosystem food chain in the form of sunlight.
The arrows in the picture above signify the energy tranfer. Bacteria go to shrimp/crabs, then goes to the ssnapper, and so on.
If one of these elements were taken out, it would cause a drastic change in the environment. So if the heron was taken out, then the population of snappers would increase, so they would need to eat more food, which would be the shrimp & crab. Then so many of these species would be eaten & their population would go down, and so on down the chain.
15. Wetlands filter out the runoff water, which prevents clogs in waterways, (etc.) to save a huge profit of money.
16. Wetlands act like the sponge of the ecosystem, which prevents floods & erosion in nearby lands.
17. Wetlnd plants hold the soil in their roots, absorb the energy of tthe waves that hit the shore (etc.) to prevent erosion near the coast from occuring.
18. Wetlands are suitable environments for many types of species, both plnats & animals. This includes endangered species such as otters.
19. Wetlands can grow many crops that will give us profit, such as cranberries. They can also produce a large sum of shellfish which results in a very large profit: 1.2 billion pounds=$244 million in 1991.
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