Bond Types

Covalent, Ionic, and Metallic Bonds

These types of bonds are usually remembered better by the knowledge of the type of atoms that are being bonded:

Covalent: nonmetal + nonmetal         (Ex. Sugar (C12H22O11))

Ionic: nonmetal + metal                       (Ex. Sodium Chloride (NaCl))

Metallic: metal + metal                         (Ex. Copper (Cu))


•the bonding of two atoms (nonmetal + nonmetal) that represents the sharing of the valence electrons between the atoms

Characteristics of Covalent Bondings:

Appearance: more of a brittle appearance

Melting Point: has a low melting point (melts easily)

Solubility in Water: sometimes dissolves in water

Conduction: NEVER conducts


•the bonding of two atoms (nonmetal + metal) that represents the attraction between opposite charges

Characteristics of Ionic Bondings:

Appearance: more of a brittle appearance; similar to ionic

Melting Point: has a high melting point (hard to melt)

Solubility in Water: does dissolve in water

Conduction: conducts as a liquid and when dissolved in water, but not as a solid


•the bonding of two atoms (metal + metal) that represent the attraction between the metals and their nuclei

Characteristics of Metallic Bondings:

Appearance: more of a shiny appearance that is very distinguished

Melting Point: high melting point (does not melt easily)

Solubility in Water: does not dissolve in water

Conduction: ALWAYS conducts


Here is the Ionic Character Chart that Shows the Extent Between the Two Bond Types of Covalent and Ionic:

0.0             0.3                                      1.7%                                                        3.3


0%             5%                                      50%                                                        100%

Non-Polar        Polar Covalent with              Ionic: loss or gain of                                                         Covalent            unequal share of                               electrons.                                                                     with equal                electrons                                                                                                                        share of                                                                                                                                                             electrons

Other Key Things to Remember:

* The Octet Rule states that to reach a lower potential energy and become more stable, there must be 8 valence electrons.

* Lower potential energy (which is achieved through the bonding of atoms) is favored more in nature because it makes the atom(s) more stable.

Comment Stream