The Hundred Years War
By Parker Noell and Jack Fultz
How does the competitive drive of humans for power, lead to war and civil conflict in our history?
Causes of the war
Conflict arose when king of England was also considered a vassal for a French king. Edward III (the king/vassal) was believed to be heir because his father Edward II was married to the French king's daughter. The lords, fearful of that Edward II would be their king, brought up an old law called Salic law. This law stated that property could not be passed on through women. Therefore Philip IV's nephew Philip VI was chosen as the French king. Philip VI then stole Edwards fiefs which marked the starting point of the war.
In the beginning from 1337 to 1360, France was consistently losing territory and power from the Battle of Sluys in 1340, the Battle of Crécy in 1346, and the Battle of Poitiers in 1356 at the hands of Edward the Black Prince. The Treaty of Brétigny (1360) gave England a third of French territory.
In the midst of the war, from 1360 to 1415, French armies began to regain previously lost territory and land. England had lost most of its holdings in the French territory, which meant it maintained only a few ports. England also had to face internal instability, which meant a revolt from the people that disagreed, also known as peasants.
King Henry crushed the French Royal Army at the Battle of Agincourt in 1415. He conquered Normandy and used diplomacy to force Charles VI to sign the Treaty of Troyes (1420), which disinherited Charles' son.
Towards the end of the war English troops were regularly defeated by French armies during the siege of Orléans and the Battle of Patay in 1429, the Battle of Formigny in 1450, and the Battle of Castillon in 1453. Between 1449 and 1453, England lost all its territories in France. The Hundred Years' War had definitively come to an end by 1475
Joan of Arc
She was a peasant born in northeastern France . At 13 she believed she was hearing voices from god that told her to expel the enemies of France and claim Charles as their rightful king. At 16 she had convinced Charles to give her an army. Contrary to what his counsel and generals advised him he chose to give her an army which she took to Orléans. Leading her army in white armor and apon a horse she drove the Anglo-Burgundians back, performing a miraculous victory. After the battle at Orléarns Joan and her followers escorted Charles to Reims. There he was coranated as king in 1429. The following year she was ordered to defend against an assault from Anglo-Burgundians. While defending she was thrown from her horse and taken captive by the Anglo-Burgundians. They charged her with 70 crimes which included witchcraft, heresay and dressing like a man. She was later burned on a stake in 1431 consequently increasing her fame. In 1920 pope Benedict XV declared her a saint. She is a symbol of nationality and unity in France.
Along with Queen Isabella I, Ferdinand V brought several kingdoms on the Iberian Peninsula together to form Spain. Ferdinand was heir to the crown of Aragon and cousin to Isabella, heiress to the throne of Castile. Isabella had strong ambitions to unify Spain and looked toward a marriage with Ferdinand as the best way to advance that agenda. After she proposed that strategy to him, he agreed, and they married on October 19, 1469, creating a formidable partnership that would alter world history.
Critical thinking question:
How has the Hundred Years War affected further expansion and conflict through Europe?
"The Hundred Year's War in 5 Minutes." YouTube. HistoryGems. Web. 17 Dec. 2014. <https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=0xGMevEpNGY>.
"Joan of Arc." History.com. A&E Television Networks. Web. 17 Dec. 2014. <http://www.history.com/topics/saint-joan-of-arc>
Davis, Paul K. and Stanley Sandler. "Hundred Years' War." World History: Ancient and Medieval Eras. ABC-CLIO, 2014. Web. 17 Dec. 2014.
"Ferdinand V." Abc-Clio. Web. 18 Dec. 2014. <http://ancienthistory.abc-clio.com/Search/Display/593594?terms=Ferdinand of Aragon>.