Continuity & Change in the United States
1988-2015

Evaluate the extent to which economics, politics, culture, and America’s role in the world from 1988-2015 contributed to maintaining continuity as well as fostering change in the United States.

Document A:

Source: Civil Rights Monitor, March 1988,

"CONGRESS OVERRIDES THE PRESIDENT'S VETO OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS RESTORATION ACT"/Serial: Journal/Politics & Power/Year of Birth

www.civilrights.org/monitor/march1988/art1p1.html

CONGRESS OVERRIDES THE PRESIDENT'S VETO OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS RESTORATION ACT

On March 22, 1988, the Senate by a vote of 74-23, and the House by a vote of 292-133 overrode President Reagan's veto of the Civil Rights Restoration Act. The Act restores the four civil rights statutes that relate to federal financial assistance to their broad coverage prior to the Grove City College v. Bell, 465 U.S. 555 (1984) decision. In the Grove City decision, the Supreme Court ruled that the prohibition in Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 against federal funding of sex discrimination extended only to the specific program or activity receiving the funds, and not to the entire recipient institution or entity. Since all the civil rights statutes relating to federal funds use the same language to describe coverage, the decision had the effect of also narrowing the scope of laws prohibiting federally subsidized discrimination based on race, disability and age.

The Civil Rights Restoration Act amends each of the affected statutes by adding a section defining the phrase "program or activity" to make clear that discrimination is prohibited throughout entire agencies or institutions if any part receives federal financial assistance.

Historical Context: 1989 – Webster v. Reproductive Health Services - approved state restrictions on abortion. The primary source document represents the political debate over civil liberties in the Unites States during the late 1980s.  The Supreme Court case Webster v. Reproductive Health Services also reflects the political tension that was common when dealing with debates over civil liberties in the late 1980s.

Purpose: To inform readers that discrimination based on sex is illegal through an entire institution if that institution receives federal funds.

Politics & Power

This article from the journal, Civil Rights Monitor, is significant because it illustrates the debates over civil rights and civil liberties that were still a part of political life in 1988. The article states, “On March 22, 1988, the Senate by a vote of 74-23, and the House by a vote of 292-133 overrode President Reagan's veto of the Civil Rights Restoration Act.” This demonstrates the debate over civil rights and the conflict that arose in 1988 due to Reagan’s veto of the Civil Rights Restoration Act and Congress’ override of that veto.

Document B:

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