Inventions of the Industrial Revolution


Alexander Gram Bell and The Telephone-1876


Mr.Bell was born in Scotland. Alexander Gram Bell started creating the telephone when he figured out a way to communicate to deaf people (his mother) he found talking close to her forehead the vibration somehow would help with communication.  Mr. Bell also worked in the family business he became interested in transmitting the human voice over wires like the telegraph did words.  Setting up and demonstrating how it worked with the distance getting further and further apart.    When he created the phone it was a revolution invention, the box he made he did not know worked until he called out to his assistant as he spilled something and Watson heard him through the device.  It was a transmitter and a receiver. The telephone revolutionized communication and other ideas along the way.

John Pemberton and CoCa-Cola 1886

Dr. John Stith Pemberton

Dr. Pemberton was a pharmacist who invented a syrup that he named and trademarked Coca-Cola.  Dr. Pemberton first took the syrup to a pharmacy where there was a soda fountain and when added carbonated water it was what we know as "pop" or "soda".   Dr. Pemberton  realized the potential of what he created and sold off portion of his business and Assa Candler bought Coca -Cola and all the rights to prior to the death of Dr. Pemberton.

Karl Benz and the first Mercedes-Benz-1885

Karl Benz was a German engineer who built one of the first automobile a gas powered  internal combustion engine. The first car was a three wheeler built in 1886 and in 1891 he built the first 4 wheeler.  Mr. Benz had started his own company Benz & Company which was the world's largest manufacturer in 1900 of the automobile.  Mr. Benz got his first patent in 1879 for the two stroke engine.  Mr. Benz also worked on the four stroke engine.  Mr Benz designed his own vehicle and engine.  

George Westinghouse and the Air Brakes 1868

Mr Westinghouse invented the railroad braking system after seeing a train wreck.  The brakeman on that train had to run from car to car jumping on the catwalk and manually apply the brake on each individual car.  Mr Westinghouse system used compressed air.  The brake worked all the cars at one time there were reservoirs and flexible connections which when the brakes were applied worked on all the cars simultaneously.  In 1873 Mr Westinghouse got his patent through his company Westinghouse Air Brake Company (WABCO) known as a fail safe system.  Today trains and heavy trucks use this system.  

Charles Parson and The Steam Turbine 1884

Mr. Parsons invented the steam turbine small scale in 1884 it took steam and added rotating fans creating   7.5 kW (10 hp) of electricity , making it cheap and plentiful.  There are reaction and impulse turbine, Parsons was a reaction turbine.  The turbine is a rotary motion it is able to drive an electrical generator.  Parsons was a small scale design and Mr. Westinghouse took the reaction turbine that Parsons patented and upscaled it, improving from 7.5 kW to 50,000 kW capacity.   

Impulse turbine is simpler cost less does not need to be pressure proof but is less efficient.  This type of turbine was used in a French torpedo boat.   

Rudolf Diesel and the Diesel engine-1892

Rudolf Christian Karl Disel was German he was and inventor and mechanical engineer.  Rudolf worked for Linde in research and development which was a refrigeration and ice plant.  Because he couldn't patent or develop anything from that company he looked at thermal efficiency and fuel efficiency where he build a steam engine using ammonia vapor which when testing blew up and almost killed him.  This took Rudolf in a new direction using the Carnot cycle and Benz car invention to invent the diesel engine.  

It took thermodynamic  and understanding fuel efficiency  need to design a compression ignition engine which is injecting the fuel at the end of compression igniting it by high temperature resulting in compression.  Rudolf got patients in Germany and other countries including the U.S.

Rudolf dies from suicide? It is still unknown by theory is probable however after his death the diesel engine continued to be developed and replaced the stem piston engine where the diesel engine is now in truck, locomotives ship and submarines .

Nikolaus August Otto and the Four Stroke Engine-1876

Otto was a German inventor, he invented the first internal combustion engine which burned fuel directly into the piston chamber.  Otto did not patent the four stroke engine but was the first to make it practical.  The 2 stroke engine although was successful hit a dead end due to only able to produce 3 hp.  Therefore the 4 stroke cycle engine was focused on.  The Otto engine was designed as a stationary engine.  The four strokes are downward intake, 2 upward compression,3 downward power strokewhere fuel is ignited by an electric spark, 4 upward exhaust stroke exhaust is released from the piston chamber.  Otto sold as a stationary motor.  

Gottlieb Daimler and The first gas-powered motorcycle

Gottlieb Wilhelm Daimler was an engineer, industrial designer and industrialist. Mr. Daimler invented the high speed petrol engine.  in 1885 designed a modern gas engine which fit into a two wheeler, the motorcycle. This went into a stagecoach and a boat too.  

Mr Daimler worked with Maybach on the engine design getting ride of slide valve ignition and inventing a hot tube system (Leo Funk).  Daimlet and Maybach built a two wheeler chassis with two spring loaded stabilizers to hold a .5hp engine.  Daimlet devised a 1.1 hp single put it in a four seater phaeton.

Samuel Colt and the Revolver-1836

Samuel Colt was the inventor the revolver or also known as the "Peacemaker". After he went to the UK and received a patent for a revolving gun it made him very popular over the years. By the end of 1837 the company made a 1,000 firearms but there were no sales because of the panic of 1837(financial crisis). Colt needed money to get machinery to make interchangeable parts so he went out of town to get money. Colt took a loan out from his cousin and went to D.C. to go see the president of that time and he demonstrated it to the president and he approved of his invention, he seeking military application for his firearm.  South Carolina wanted  50-75 pistols and due to not making fast enough canceled order.  Mr. Colt became reckless with his money the war saved them for a while but new design led to difficulty and and the Paterson plant closed.  

Mr. Colt then started to work on tinfoil cartridges for revolvers.  He made samples for the army and after 25 rounds fired it worked no residue from the foil and the army ordered 200,00 rounds.  Colt then met up with Morse again and worked on cables for the mines, weatherproofing telegraph cable.  

Colt went on to produce the revolvers for the war and made money and was able to build a factory to produce the guns.

Samuel Morse and the Telegraph-1837 and Morse code-1838

Samuel Morse invented the single wire telegraph system.  He co developed Morse code.  Morse started out as a painter and studied at the Royal Academy.  His master piece was the Dying Hercules and Judgment of Jupiter.  

Mr. Morse was painting in Washington DC when he got a letter that told him his wife was sick, the next day a letter told him she was dead.  He left for home Lafayette, because of no early knowledge of wife's ill health he wanted to find a way for long distance communication.

When returning to Europe on a ship he met Charles Thomas Jackson from Boston.  the was an electromagnetism.  He showed experiments and Mr. Morse had a concept of a single wire telegraph.  Mr. Morse stopped painting and developed and patented this as well as Morse code as the primary language of the telegraph world.

Morse was beat out by Cooke and Wheatstone formed and patent the electric telegraph in May of 1837, this over took Morse cheaper version.

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