The solar system

By: Adam Holcomb

The Facts


  • Mercury has wrinkles
  • The Sun appears 2.5 times larger on its surface than on Earth
  • The Sun's rays are 7 times stronger on Mercury than on Earth
  • Was named after the Roman Messenger God
  • From one sunrise to the next is 180 Earth days
  • The stars are probably seen during the day thanks to its pure black sky
  • Rotates slowly on its axis, it completes one rotation every 59 Earth days
  • Has no moons
  • Mercury is apparently shrinking (Don't ask me why)
  • If you weigh 100 pounds on Earth, you would only weigh 37 pounds on Mercury


  • Venus is considered Earths twin
  • Its atmosphere is mostly composed of Co2
  • It takes 243 days to make a full rotation, 224 days for Venus to orbit around the sun.
  • Is the most explored planet in the solar system
  • Possibly had bodies of water, has clouds made up of H2So4
  • Is the brightest planet viewed from Earth aside from the Sun and Moon
  • Rotates from East to West
  • It is named after the Roman Goddess of Love
  • Venus has a diameter of about 7,520 miles, which is around 400 miles smaller than Earth
  • Venus has mountains that are higher than Earth, one mountain named Maat Mons is more than 5 miles high


  • Earth is estimated to be 4.5 billion years old
  • Travels through space at 660,000 mph
  • The oldest rocks are 500,000 years short of being as old as Earth
  • The planet weighs 6.558 quadrillion tons
  • Fun Fact #1: If Earth were compressed to a sphere with a 2-inch diameter, its surface would be as smooth as a billiard ball's
  • The Earth rotates slower in March than in September, how exactly, is complicated so I have inserted a link
  • The core temperature of Earth increase by 1 degree every 60 feet down
  • Fun Fact #2: If the Earth were flat, the water's depth would be two miles at any random point
  • Glaciers occupy 10% of the world, an area as large as South America
  • The world is an oblate spheroid, flattened at the poles, and bulging at the equator
  • Gaea was the great mother of all, the primal Greek Mother Goddess..creator and giver of birth to the Earth and all the Universe


  • Mars is known as the "red planet" and rusty because the surface has a lot of iron and the atmosphere made it rust
  • One of its moons, Phobos is threateningly closing in and possibly will crash into Mars
  • Mars possibly had water judging by all the canyons and crevices on its surface and has poles that are capped in ice
  • Mars's "year" in 687 Earth days long, their day is 24.5 hours long
  • Mars is the 2nd brightest planet in the sky
  • The thin atmosphere is mostly made of Co2
  • Mars has plate tectonics
Just to prove Mars has plate tectonics....
  • Temperatures can drop to a frigid -191 degrees Fahrenheit....BRRRRR!!!
  • Mars has the tallest Volcano in the Solar System named Olympus Mons and it is 15 miles high which is three times the height of Mount Everest
  • Mars was named after the Roman God of War, his shield and spear form the planet's symbol
  • The planet's moons, Phobos and Deimos, are named after the Greek Gods of fear and chaos


  • Jupiter is known as the "King of the Planets"
  • Jupiter has a mass 318 times greater than the Earth's and a diameter that is 11 times larger
  • 70% of the total mass of all the other planets in our Solar System would equal the mass of Jupiter
  • Jupiter's volume is large enough to contain 1,300 Earths, 100 in the big red spot
  • In 1994, pieces of a comet called shoemaker-Levy 9 broke apart and crashed into Jupiter. This left patches in Jupiter's atmosphere that lasted for many months
  • Jupiter sends out a strong radio radiation that can be detected on Earth
  • Jupiter rotates faster than any planet in the Solar System, it rotates so quickly that the days are only 10 hours long
  • Jupiter takes 12 Earth years to orbit around the sun
  • Jupiter was named after the Roman King of the Gods
  • If you weigh 100 pounds on Earth, you would weigh 264 pounds on Jupiter


  • Saturn has the lowest density of all the planets in the Solar System
  • It takes about 29.46 Earth years for Saturn to orbit around our sun
  • Saturn's rings are made up of billions of pieces of rocks and dust, surprisingly, they may be miles wide but they are only a foot thick
  • The temperature difference between the poles and the equator is very small on Saturn
  • Saturn was named after the Roman God of Agriculture
  • The atmosphere of Saturn is made up of mostly of Hydrogen and Helium
  • Galileo was the first astronomer to observe Saturn's rings...
    he could not see the rings clearly with his small telescope and thought they were large Satellites
  • Titan is the only Saturn Moon with an atmosphere, it is also larger than the planet Mercury
  • Saturn's diameter at its equator is 74,600 miles which is almost ten times that of Earth
  • Saturn can be seen from Earth without a telescope, but its rings cannot
  • Some of Saturn's moons aid the rings with the movement of their orbit, hence the name "Shepard Moon"


  • Nights on some parts of Uranus can last up to 40 years
  • It takes 30,685 Earth days for Uranus to complete an orbit around the sun
  • Uranus is named after the Greek God of the sky in latin. It is the only planet whose name came from a figure in Greek mythology as opposed to Roman mythology
  • Uranus ranks third largest of the four gas giants
  • It would take roughly 14 Earths to equal Uranus's mass
  • The rings were discovered from the Earth in 1977 when Uranus passed in front of a star and it was noticed that there were dips in the brightness of the star before and after it passed behind the body of Uranus
Picture taken by the Hubble Space Telescope of Uranus and it's rings
  • In many Asian languages, Uranus' name is translated into “Sky king star”
  • The planet was discovered in 1781 by William Hershel
  • Light gases and ice form so much of Uranus that the planet is only 1/5 denser than water
  • Though Neptune is further from the sun than Uranus, it is the coldest planet in the solar system


  • Neptune's diameter is about 30,200 miles or almost 4 times the Earth's diameter
  • Neptune was named after the Roman Ocean God
  • Neptune is the stormiest planet, it's winds can blow up to 1,240 miles per hour...that is three times as fast as Earth's Hurricanes
  • Neptune's moons don't act like any other planets moons in the Solar System, Nereid, is only 300 km wide and follows the most elliptical orbit. It needs an entire Earth year to complete one orbit. However, Triton which is 5,000 km across only takes less than six days to circle Neptune------BACKWARDS!!!
  • Neptune is a sea blue color due to the methane gas in its atmosphere
  • Neptune once had a great dark spot similar to Jupiter and are called anticyclonic storms, the interiors of the great dark spots are relatively cloud-free and unlike Jupiter's spot which has lasted for hundreds of years, their lifetimes are much shorter forming and dissipating every few years

  • Neptune's day only lasts 16 hours and 6 minutes
  • It has it's own heat source, it emits a quantity of energy 2.7 times greater than it receives
  • Neptune was discovered on Sept. 23, 1846
  • A tiny, mysterious moon orbiting Neptune has been spotted for the first time in more than 20 years. Scientists at the SETI Institute in Mountain View, California have caught sight of Naiad, the innermost of Neptune's moons . The 62-mile-wide (100 kilometers) moon has remained unseen since the cameras on NASA's Voyager 2 spacecraft discovered it in 1989.

Quick Fact - UFO sightings are at their largest when Mars is closest to Earth!!

Sources:, Wikipedia, Google,,,, National Geographic- Our Universe Book by Roy A. Gallant

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