- Lack of warm summers
- 24 hours of sunlight in the summer; 24 hours of darkness in the winter
- Permanent layers of ice
- Little to no plant life
- Very little precipitation
Temperature and Precipitation
Average Temperature: 1.4 degrees Fahrenheit
Average Precipitation: 0.4 inches
The only place on Earth where the EF, ice cap, climate is predominant is Antarctica. There are some parts of Greenland where this climate is present, though they are isolated and scarce. Additionally, permanently frozen portions of the Arctic ocean are considered to be part of an EF climate.
"Köppen Classification." Meteorology Climate. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 May 2014. <http://www.meteorologyclimate.com/koppenclassification.htm>.
Ritter, Michael E. "Ice Cap Climate." The Physical Environment: An Introduction to Physical Geography. N.p., 5 June 2012. Web. 09 May 2014. <http://www.earthonlinemedia.com/ebooks/tpe_3e/climate_systems/icecap.html>.