African Independence

Topher and SooJin

After World War II

After World War II, there was little drive to achieve independence in Africa, as most already had after European nations either chose to let go of them during World War II to focus on the war or even after in a flurry of independence movements all across Africa to free themselves from the clutches of European industrial nations. Africa was divided by Europeans without trying to conserve boundaries that would efficiently divide Africa by ethnicity and cultural divisions that already existed. Political, economic, and social instability raged on throughout Africa.

Aftermath of Decolonization

- Organization of African Unity (OAU) recognized the problems plaguing Africa and attempted to prevent conflicts

- Artificial boundaries determined inviolable by OAU in order to prevent arguments over boundaries between African nations.

- African unity promoted, especially promoted by a faction created by Kwame Nkhrumah.

- National borders held, however unity declined.

     - Internal conflicts continued to cause turmoil in Africa

- Nkhrumah, past president of Ghana, was overthrown in 1966, and thereafter created his faction in order to help remove the internal trauma Africa was suffering.

- African nations would take over their leaders and create a single-party government to remove political diversity, and often begin to take over other African nations. Therefore, many became a one-party dictatorship or were conquered and forced under military rule.

- South Africa managed to solve its problems unlike most other African nations, setting a prime example for multiethnic African transformation even though hostilities ran high amongst the population.

South Africa

- Delayed freedom due to influence of white settlers for years

- Gained independence from Britain in 1910

     - Even though they were given independence, they were still dispossessed and disenfranchised, so they refused to adopt western culture and intelligence, as they had previously denied the South Africans of some of their most basic human rights. Anti-Westernization spread throughout South Africa.

- Ability for white settlers to resist African majority trying to overtake them was possible due to the great strength of the South African economy due to the extraction of resources taking place as well as industrial development, which had been greatly benefitted during World War II, when colonial nations had been called upon to help their mother countries.

- Growth of industrialization created jobs for blacks, possibility of change of status

     - Along with it came changes for political structure, black activism, and calls for reform.

- Inspiration amongst Blacks touched the hearts of white settlers

- 1948 Afrikaner  National Party, dedicated to stopping any black independence movements, instituted as the "apartheid."

Apartheid

- Afrikaner National Party (1948) created a harsh set of laws design to control black population known as apartheid

- Apartheid system was basically a system to prevent blacks to rise for political, social, and economic position

- Even before 1948, segregation and white supremacy existed

     -87% of South Africa's territory was designated for white citizens

     -Colored or mixed race people were classified by many names such as Indians, Bantu with variety of subdivisions such as Zulu, Xhosa, Sotho in order to prevent unified liberation movements

- Protestors appeared against apartheid system The African National Congress (ANC) had leaders like Nelson Mandela

     -Mandela directed campaigns to establish multiracial democratic rule in South Africa

     -The court imprisoned Mandela, convincing people that there needs to be a change

- Due to protestors, the government declared every protestors as communists and conflicted occurred

     -Ex. Radical activism conflict in Sharpeville

When the government started banning black organizations, South Africa was enraged and declared themselves as republic, ending their relations with the British Commonwealth

The End of Apartheid

- F.W. Klerk (1936) became president of South Africa in 1989

     -He supported the National Party and ended the apartheid system in order to bring social stability

     -Released Mandela and legalized the African National Congress Created a new constitutions and held elections for all races

- Mandela was elected to be the first black African president in South Africa

     - "Free at last" ~ Mandela

The Democratic Republic of Congo

- African political identity and stability was once seen the Belgian Congo, which was reconfigured as Zaire

     -Mobutu Sese Seko killed Zaire's first prime minister and gained power

     -U.S. central intelligence aganecy (CIA) and other foreign powers supported Mobutu's group, giving Mobutu wealth and power

- Mobutu's power ended in 1997 by Laurent Kabila

     -Zaire, known as "a fabrication of the dictator", ended and was renamed as the Democratic Republic of Congo

     -Kabila empowered himself giving an excuse that it was for preparation to a democratic and stability, but rebellions occurred

- Mandela's effort for democracy served as a model for hundreds of tribes and nations to change overthrow old imperialism by white

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