What is Thermodynamics
Thermodynamics is a a type of physics that deals with the relationships between heat and other forms of energy. Mostly shows how thermal energy is turned into other types of energy and how it affects matter. thermal energy is an energy that is made due to temperature which is moving or vibrating molecules. thermodynamics involves the measurement of this energy. In thermodynamics consists of very large numbers of atoms or molecules interacting in complicated ways. if the systems come to together to make the right criteria happen witch is called equilibrium that can be described with a very small number of measurements or numbers. often shown as the mass of a system, pressure of a system and the volume of the system or other numbers that are equivalent.
Thermodynamics is concerned with many different types of matter. the most often of theses is heat. heat transferred between substance or systems due to temperature difference between them. as a form of energy heat is conserved.it can not be created or destroyed. it can however b e transferred from one place to another. heat can also be transformed from and to different types of energy. for example from heat to kinetic from the uses of a steam turbine. Heat can be transferred by tree different ways thought objects an the environment. The tree are Conduction convection and radiation.
- Conduction is the transfer of energy thought a solid object. or when they are touching each other and molecules transfer their energy with each other.
- Convection is the transfer of hear to or from a liquid or a gas. When the molecules in gas or liquid touch a solid object it absorbs the heat and moves the gas or liquid away and other liquid or gas replace it and the cycle repeats it self over and over.
- radiation is electromagnetic energy particularly that have heat energy. All things emits and absorbs some Em radiation. the amount given or release is the amount of the temperature differences in the object thought the air.
The amount of heat transferred by a substance is depending on the speed of the atoms or molecules inside in motion. the faster the atom or molecules move the higher the temperature and the more atoms or molecules that are in motion the more heat is transferred. Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of particles in matter that is shown in the unite of degrees. the most common scale is Celsius. Their is also Fahrenheit. the scientific scale for temperature is kelvin scale which as no degrees sigh. they sues it because it works in calculations. the Kelvin scale is like the Celsius but starts at absolute zero which is the point wear atoms stop moving and their is no heat at all.
Specific heat- Is the amount of heat that is need to change the the temperature of an object or substance. The amount of heat to change an objects heat is call specific heat or specific heat capacity.
Entropy- All Thermodynamic systems generate heat that it does not need making it wasted energy this increases the amount of entropy. So entropy is measurement of all wasted energy in a system/object.
The four laws of thermodynamics
The fundamental principles of thermodynamics were originally expressed in three laws. to make a set of rule scientists decided though was that the first three laws had already been made and were well known by their assigned numbers. the
zeroth law is a new type of law which is states that the total increase in energy of systems is equal to the increase in thermal energy plus the work done on the system
The First Law this state that the total increase in the energy of a system is equal to the increase in the thermal energy plus the work done on the system. this mean that heat is an energy so it is important to conserve it
The Second Law this law states that heat energy cannot be transferred to matter at a temperature that is higher unless additional energy is used. This is the reason that it cost more to cool a room then heat a room
The Third Law this law state that the entropy of pure crystal at absolute zero is zero. entropy is also known as waste energy which is energy that is that is wasted on nothing with it being at absolute zero their is no heat energy that can be wasted. Entropy is also a measure of the disorder any positive value of temperature means that their is motion in the atoms in the crystal which cause disorder. The thi law their can be no physical system with lower entropy so entropy alsway has a positive value.