The Gupta Empire.
"India's Golden Age"
The Gupta empire, the next big empire after the Mauryan empire, lasted for about 400 years from around the year 300-600AD after being started by Chandra Gupta.
The empire was located mostly in the north of India.
The Gupta Empire was a time in India's culture of peace and prosperity. During this time is when many important contributions were made, specifically in the progression of math. Contributions from this time are the reason we do math the way we do today! Today we use Arabic numerals, which were originally created by the people of India in the time of the Gupta empire. This number system was brought over from India by the Arabs, which is the reason for the name, and it ended up replacing the Roman numeral system.
The idea of zero was also thought up during this period of extensive discoveries and inventions in Indian culture. In the Roman numeral system there had never been a way to express the idea of nothing. The concept of zero led to the invention of the decimal system. The invention of the zero and the decimal system meant the beginning of complex math. Not surprisingly a lot of the words used in math today are derived from Indian words!