The mother board is the main part of a computer, it is the mother board's job to link all the components of a computer together, by sending power to them, and allowing information to be processed among the individual parts, and allowing the parts of a computer to communicate with each other.
The graphics card, is responsible for creating images on a screen connect to the computer, a high end graphics card is required when doing graphic intensive work such as gaming, 3D modeling and rendering videos. The graphics card is connect to the lower portion of the motherboard
The job of the CPU cooler is to keep the CPU of a computer running at a safe temperature, to prevent system failure and the CPU dying. The two most common types of CPU cooling are air cooling and liquid cooling.
The bios is a chip on a mother board, which contains basic software to control how the computer boots, in addition to allowing the user to access certain options on a PC before it boots for trouble shooting and set up. A UEFI is very similar to the bios, with the major differences being a UEFI has a graphic interface while the bios is text based, the UEFI being easier to navigate through, and the UEFI handling the booting of a computer different through how drives are stored and assigned, in addition to a few more minor diffrences.
A mother board is measurable in many areas. One of the areas it is measurable in is its socket type, mother boards have different sockets allowing them to use different CPUs, the socket determines the type of CPU it can use in addition the brand it can use (Intel/AMD). Further more a mother board can be measured on what type of ram it can use and how many ram channels it has, contributing to how fast the computer can process information. A motherboard can also be measured by how many PCI-E slots it has, allowing for 1-4 graphics card with the options for other peripherals, helping to determine how strong over all the PC would be due to how many components the pc could be made of. In addition to compatibility with hardware, a mother board can be measured in the amount of SATA ports it has available, the more SATA ports a mother board has the more HDDs and SSDs can be connected to the pc giving the user more memory for storage. Furthermore a mother board can be measured based on it's bus speed, determining how fast the components of the pc will be able to communicate with each other without creating slow down, decreasing the overall speed of the PC. It is by these qualities and others that a mother board can be measured by.
A graphics card is measurable in its ability to create and maintain high fps when under load, such as playing games on ultra settings at 4k. On a more specific basis a graphics card can be measured on its amount of v-ram which is the amount of memory it has to process the data it needs to make the graphics, in addition to the GPU's core clock speed and memory clock speed affecting how fast it runs. A graphics card can also be measured on its compatibility to be water cooled, and the effectiveness of the cooler it comes with form the factory.
Air: Air coolers are measurable in the size of the heat sinks that are attached to the CPU, a bigger heat sink typically means a better absorption of heat by the cooler allowing it to cool quicker and more efficiently. Air coolers are also measurable by the fans on them. The fans can be measured in terms of their size, air flow, silence and the amount of static pressure they create.
Liquid: Liquid cooling is measurable in many areas, including the size of the radiators and fans in the cooling loop, the pump on the loop, fittings, CPU block, and the fluid in the loop. The radiator size in a liquid cooling loop is important as the size of the radiator will determine how quickly heat can be dissipated from the liquid in the loop in addition to the fans moving air through the fins of the radiator. The pump is measurable in how much fluid it can push through the loop, the larger the loop is the stronger the pump you need to get an ideal flow rate. The fluid in the loop is available in many different forms from plain distilled water to nano fluids, the major differences in the fluids are the prices with distilled water being cheapest, fluids being designed to be non conductive, a fluids ability to prevent the growth of algae, and the colouring of the fluid. The CPU block is responsible for pulling the heat from the CPU and transferring it to the liquid in the loop, therefore it is measurable in its ability to transfer heat, in addition to what materials its comprised of (mostly metal or plastic), how it looks and if it has the ability to light up.
The bios and UEFI of a pc can be measured, by the accessibility of each software and how many option each one gives the user of the pc. The two can also be measured by how well they handle the start up of the computer. The UEFI can be measured by its graphical inter face, and organization of menus in addition to the amount of menus a user must navigate through to find what they are looking for.
Where to find each part.
The mother board is found on the top left side of the pc, with the CPU and CPU water block found on the top centre of the mother board, with the ram to the right of them. The bios is also found on the mother board, in different locations depending on the specific board. The radiator is found on the top of the case, and the reservoir for the cooler on the front, along with the pump. The graphics cards are found on the bottom portion of the mother board, also connected to the back of the case.
Low to High End
Motherboard High End: Asus Maximuss Hero VII
Budget Concious: MSI H81M-P33
Middle Ground: Asus z97-a
The high end gaming mother board offers a sleeker look than the low end option, while also offering more PCI-E slots better ram computability and overall better parts and features.
High End: Nvidia GTX Titan X
Low End: Sapphire ATI Radeon
Middle Ground: Nvidia GTX 760
The high end GPU offers a superior look than the low end GPU in addition to a better cooling solution and much better performance on every level than the low end card.
High End: Custom loop (Skunk Works), V8 GTS
Low End: Intel Stock Cooler
Middle Ground: Corsair H100i, Cooler Master Hyper 212 Evo
The high End solutions once again provide far better looks than their low end counter part, and also provide far superior cooling to the Pc.
When it comes to the bios and UEFI all variations among each other are very similar to each other and can not be picked and choose from due to the fact that each board has its own bios or UEFI, however in many cases the UEFI is better than the bios as once again it looks better and is easier to use.