The Muslim Empire, also known as the golden age of Islam, began in 700 A.D and lasted until 900 A.D. , just a few hundred years. This Golden Age was under the Abbassid Dynasty. This was a time of great learning and cultural diffusion. They contributed many things. Also , they inherited the skills and knowledge of the Ancient Middle East, Greece, and Persia. They added new inventions such as paper from China, and the decimal system from India.
The Muslim Empire was located in parts of India, North Africa, and Spain.
How it Spread
The Muslim Empire moved out of Mecca, east to India, west across North Africa, and on into Spain. The Muslim Empire grew because people wanted to spread Islam to others. The Empire expanded by military conquest, and trade. It took about 100 years to expand most of their empire. The Muslim Empire had a great army because people believed that if they died in battle, they would go directly to Jihad, or heaven. The Muslim army also had horse and camel cavalry. When people had been conquered, the Muslim people treated them fairly- better than previous rulers.
Battle of Tours
The Battle of Tours, also called the Battle of Poitiers took place near the village of Moussais-la-Bataille in Southern France between the cities of Poitiers and Tours. This battle was fought between Frankish leader Charles Martel and an Islamic army led by Emir Abd er Rahman. The French Christians, under Charles Martel, defeated the Muslims and stopped their advance into Europe. This helped to preserve Christianity in Europe.
The Muslims made many contributions to our society. In mathematics they spread Gupta math ideas, and also created algebra and trigonometry. In medicine they created hospitals, wrote medical textbooks, and required doctors to pass exams to practice medicine. Their architecture was influenced by Byzantine and Indian styles. In Astronomy they learned from Greek ideas. They studied the stars and created astronomical tables. Their law was based on Islamic religious laws in the Qur'an . This became the basis for political laws throughout the empire. In banking they used money, and allowed credit, or borrowing money, to be used. Another important thing that the Muslim Empire did was preserve Greek and Roman culture. They preserved Greek and Roman ideas that they got from their contacts with the Byzantine Empire, and improved upon on them.