ICELAND

Capital: Reykjavik

Brief History:

Irish Monks were the first people to settle in Iceland, however, in the 9th century, they were driven out by the Vikings. According to tradition, the first Viking to discover Iceland was a man named Naddoddur who got lost while on his way to the Faeroes. Following him, was a Swede named Gardar Svavarsson, who circumnavigated Iceland. However, the first Viking attempt to settle was by a Norwegian named Floki Vilgeroason. He was the one to name the land Iceland. He landed in the northwest but a severe winter killed his domestic animals and he sailed back to Norway.

In the 14th century Denmark governed Iceland

In the 20th and 21st century:

~In 1944, Iceland gained independence

~Women were allowed to vote

~Iceland had a series of 'cod wars' with Britain

~USA announced it was withdrawing its armed forces from Iceland

~Iceland suffered an economic crisis when its 3 main banks failed

Environment

Climate: The meeting of distinct air and water currents is the result            of Iceland’s climate. Polar and tropical air currents combined          with the warm Gulf stream ocean current and the cold East              Greenland current create a more moderate climate then would be          expected at such far north location.

Vegetation: Such hearty crops as potatoes and turnips are grown                     outside, while cucumbers, tomatoes, and assorted vegetables             are grown indoors in heated greenhouses. About 28% of                   Iceland’s land area is used for livestock grazing and only             around 1% used for crop cultivation.

Top 3 landforms: Vatna Glacier

                 Oraefajokull volcano

                 Great Geysir

Bodies of water: are Arctic Ocean, Norwegian Sea and the Atlantic                        Ocean.

Major cities: Reykjavik

              Kopavogur

Iceland Political
Iceland Physical
Iceland Population Pyramid




CITATIONS:

"Iceland: Landforms & Climate." World Geography: Understanding a Changing World. ABC-CLIO, 2014. Web. 8 Dec. 2014

"Iceland: Natural Resources & Agriculture." World Geography: Understanding a Changing World. ABC-CLIO, 2014. Web. 8 Dec. 2014.

Burnett, Mark Troy. "Iceland: Arts and Landmarks." World Geography: Understanding a Changing World. ABC-CLIO, 2014. Web. 8 Dec. 2014.

"Iceland: Food and Holidays." World Geography: Understanding a Changing World. ABC-CLIO, 2014. Web. 8 Dec. 2014.

Burris, Tamar. "Iceland: National Dress." World Geography: Understanding a Changing World. ABC-CLIO, 2014. Web. 8 Dec. 2014.

Skaptadottir, Unnur Dis. "Icelanders." World Geography: Understanding a Changing World. ABC-CLIO, 2014.

Lambert, Tim. "A BRIEF HISTORY OF ICELAND FROM VIKING TIMES TO TODAY." A Brief History of Iceland. 1 Jan. 2013. Web. 5 Dec. 2014. <http://www.localhistories.org/iceland.html>.

"Iceland: Country Overview." World Geography: Understanding a Changing World. ABC-CLIO, 2014. Web. 20 Nov. 2014.Web. 8 Dec. 2014.

Government Type: Constitutional Republic

Prime Minister: Sigmundur David Gunnlaugsson

Iceland is currently considered an independent republic

There are no major minority groups.

Economy

GDP per capita: $51,736 (estimate) (2015)

Unemployment rate: 7.4% (2011)

Currency: Icelandic Krona

Imports: fossil fuels, foodstuffs, textiles, manufactured goods, etc.

Exports: Aluminum, fish, ferrosilicon, diatomic, etc.

Major trade partners: Germany & United Kingdom

Cultural Traditions

Holidays: National day (June 17)

          Sumardagurinn Fyrsti  (First Day of Summer)

          Thorrablot Feast

          Icelandic Language (November 16)

Clothing: Peysofut (a woolen outfit consisting of a long black skirt             worn with a long-sleeved black jacket)

          Upphlutur (a black or grey sleeveless dress with a long                 skirt)

          skautbúningur (for weddings or formal occasions)

          Men's national dresses consists primarily of a dark colored             waistcoat lined with silver or brass buttons, and black                 pants.

Foods: Certain meats are pickled in whey and pressed into cakes.

       The local form of alcoholic beverage is fondly referred to as          brennivin, or "black death," but many Icelanders drink more            coffee than any other beverage.

Famous Authors: Halldor Laxness (1902-1998)

                Arnaldur Indrioason (1961-present)

                Hallgrimur Helgason (1959-present)

Official language: Icelandic

Religion: religion does not play a large role in the most people's               daily lives. However, the majority of Icelanders are                    identified as religious, and 80% belong to the National                 Church of Iceland.

Recreation

Things people do with their spare time: Watch TV

                                        Use technology

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