The geology of the Appalachians dates back to more than 480 million years ago. A look at rocks exposed in today's Appalachian Mountains reveals elongate belts of folded and thrust faulted marine sedimentary rock, volcanic rocks and slivers of ancient ocean floor - strong evidence that these rocks were deformed during plate collision.
The Appalachian Basin is one of the most important coal producing regions in the US and one of the biggest in the world. Appalachian Basin bituminous has been mined throughout the last three centuries. Currently, the coal primarily is used within the eastern U.S. for electrical power generation.
Over the last 150 years, the global temperature has risen more than -16°C, and has risen the most dramatically over the last few decades. Natural variations, such as the earth’s orbit, volcanic activity, and solar activity, have caused climate change in the past. However, evidence indicates that these recent changes are driven largely by human activities, that these changes are occurring rapidly, and are predicted to continue and increase in the future from our past and continued emissions from fossil fuel burning
The ancient Appalachian Mountains form the backbone of this region. These worn, plateau-like flat-topped mountains, many with summits over 900 meters, compose the most spectacular, accessible mountain scenery in Canada east of the Rockies. The peaks are barren and covered with broken shale.
Highly variable, the vegetation of this region includes isolated populations of species normally expected far to the north and south. The highest peaks and exposed cliffs provide habitat for several arctic-alpine species normally found thousands of kilometres away in the Rockies or the Arctic -relics from a time when arctic conditions were prevalent throughout this region.Dry sites are characterized by red oak, red pine and white pine; wet sites by red maple, black ash and eastern white cedar.