was followed by the Mukden Incident, on September 18, 1931. The same day as the Mukden Incident. communicated its decision to the Kwantung Army command. In violation of orders from Tokyo.

September 18, 1931

Japan invades Manchuria.

in a phase called "the age of consensus" during which foreign leaders praised him for his achievements. The fort at Welwel was well beyond the twenty-one league limit and the Italians were encroaching on Ethiopian territory.

October 2, 1935–May 1936

Fascist Italy invades, conquers, and annexes Ethiopia.

October 25–November 1, 1936

Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy sign a treaty of cooperation on October 25; on November 1, the Rome-Berlin Axis is announced.

November 25, 1936

Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan sign the Anti-Comintern Pact, directed against the Soviet Union and the international Communist movement.

September 29, 1938

Germany, Italy, Great Britain, and France sign the Munich agreement which forces the Czechoslovak Republic to cede the Sudetenland, including the key Czechoslovak military defense positions, to Nazi Germany.

March 14–15, 1939

Under German pressure, the Slovaks declare their independence and form a Slovak Republic. The Germans occupy the rump Czech lands in violation of the Munich agreement, forming a Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia

March 31, 1939

France and Great Britain guarantee the integrity of the borders of the Polish state.

April 7–15, 1939

Fascist Italy invades and annexes Albania.Deciding that Adolf Hitler had been upstaging him, Benito Mussolini decided it was time to launch another invasion to put Italy in the news. Despite King Vittorio Emanuele III's objections, Mussolini used King Zog's oppression of fascists in Albania as an excuse for aggression.

September 3, 1939

Honoring their guarantee of Poland’s borders, Great Britain and France declare war on Germany.

September 3, 1939

Honoring their guarantee of Poland’s borders, Great Britain and France declare war on Germany.

November 30, 1939–March 12, 1940

The Soviet Union invades Finland, initiating the so-called Winter War. The Finns sue for an armistice and have to cede the northern shores of Lake Lagoda and the small Finnish coastline on the Arctic Sea to the Soviet Union.

June 14, 1940–August 6, 1940

The Soviet Union occupies the Baltic States on June 14–18, engineering Communist coup d’états in each of them on July 14–15, and then annexing them as Soviet Republics on August 3–6.

August 30, 1940

Second Vienna Award: Germany and Italy arbitrate a decision on the division of the disputed province of Transylvania between Romania and Hungary. The loss of northern Transylvania forces Romanian King Carol to abdicate in favor of his son, Michael, and brings to power a dictatorship under General Ion Antonescu.

April 10, 1941

The leaders of the terrorist Ustasa movement proclaim the so-called Independent State of Croatia. Recognized immediately by Germany and Italy, the new state includes the province of Bosnia-Herzegovina. Croatia joins the Axis powers formally on June 15, 1941.

June 22, 1941–November 1941

Nazi Germany and its Axis partners (except Bulgaria) invade the Soviet Union. Finland, seeking redress for the territorial losses in the armistice concluding the Winter War, joins the Axis just before the invasion. The Germans quickly overrun the Baltic States and, joined by the Finns, lay siege to Leningrad (St. Petersburg) by September. In the center, the Germans capture Smolensk in early August and drive on Moscow by October. In the south, German and Romanian troops capture Kiev (Kyiv) in September and capture Rostov on the Don River in November.