Biomes of the world

By Georgia Fagridas

Biomes are large ecological areas on the earth’s surface, with animals and plants.There are five major categories of biomes on earth. The Major five biomes are Tundra, Forest,Desert,Grassland and Marine.


Forests make up about 30% of the total land cover on earth, and are of incredible value to life on earth. They are a store of carbon and play a very important role in climate control.Temperatures of forests biomes (especially the tropical rain forest) are generally high all year though,but a lot cooler on the surface.Humidity is extremely high with lots of rainfall, exceeding 200 cm all year.There are three main biomes that make up Forest Biomes. These are the Tropical Rain forest, Temperate and Boreal Forests (also called the Taiga). In the forest the animals that live there are the Black Bear,Garter Snake,Honey Bees,Red Fox,Three Toed Woodpecker and the Mole.Many plants in the forest are  very high.These are some of the forest plants/trees Currant Bush,Blue Spruce Tree,Quaking Aspen and more.


About one quarter of the earth's land is in the grasslands.There are two main types of grassland biomes: the Savanna Grasslands and the Temperate Grasslands. One major savanna is located in Africa, and takes up more than a third of the continents land area. Others can be found in India, South America and Australia.Temperate grasslands can be found in South Africa, Argentina, and some plains in Central North America. Grasslands receive about 10 to 30 inches of rain per year, depending ontheir location in the world. If they received more rain, the grasslands wouldbecome a forest. If they received less, they would become a desert.Animals in the savannas include large mammals such as lions, hyenas, snakes, giraffes, buffaloes with lots of insects.


The tundra biome is an ecosystem situated near the North Pole in the Arctic Circle.Tundra is the by far the most coldest biome. In winter the temperature goes below to -34 degrees. The sunlight for a tundra biome stays up for 24 hours in the summer so that means no nights.The tundra biome only covers about 20% of the earth.The tundra biome has about 400 varieties of flowers but only 48 different animals.The tundra biome has about 400 varieties of flowers but only 48 different animals. The largest animals there is the polar bear. The plants that grow in the tundra biome often grow in clusters to help protect themselves from the severe winter winds.


Deserts make up about 20% of total land cover on earth.Desert biomes come in four major kinds— they are the Hot and Dry Deserts, Semi Arid Deserts, Coastal Deserts and Cold Deserts.Dust storms occur when the wind picks up dust from the surface. These storms can be up to 1 mile high and travel over a hundred miles.Animals here tend to stay in hideaways till dusk to avoid the heat. They are mainly small carnivores, birds, insects, snakes and lizards, and are adapted to survive with very little water.The plants that are able to grow in the desert biome store water in their stem. They normally grow spaced out so that their roots can extend and find water.


The marine biome covers three fourths of the earth and there are hundreds of different fish to cover each square foot of it.The sea or ocean is blue, because of the different wavelengths off light blue being the longest. The deeper the water, the 'deeper' blue it is.The ocean's deepest area is the Mariana Trench, located in the western North Pacific Ocean, is about 11 km (almost 7 miles, or almost 36,000 feet) deep! .The Northern Hemisphere contains more land than ocean - 39% land versus the 19% land in the Southern Hemisphere..The oceans are a major influence on weather and climate in many ways they transport large quantities of heat from one location to another and oceans also absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and play an important role in controlling the rate at which carbon dioxide is increasing in the atmosphere.the main mammals are dolphins, whales , sharks and seals. One of the plants in the sea is  Kelp  a plant that grows. Its leaves are great brown blades that grow up to 50 feet long and can grow to more than 100 feet long below the surface of the ocean.

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