Endocrine System
Ch 13 IVY TECH/ Ch 18 Book pg 748

The endocrine system is responsible for many amazing bodily processes: growth, sexual development, the fight or flight response to danger, and the process by which cells make energy and synthesize insulin.

How the endocrine system works is complicated

  • Hormones regulate body functions...each one matches up to a specific tissue, like a lock and key
  • Once a hormone is secreted, it travels from the endocrine gland that produced it through the bloodstream to the cells designed to receive its message. These cells are called target cells

The endocrine system is the collection of glands that produce hormones released directly into bloodstream, that regulate metabolism, growth and development, tissue function, sexual function, reproduction, sleep, and mood, among other things.

The endocrine system is made up of the

1. pituitary gland-pea size gland in base of brain MASTER GLAND because it makes hormones that control several other glands

      2 major ones in anterior pit

     GH-growth hormone, stimulates growth and is secreted during exercise sleep and hypoglycemia

  TSH-thyroid stim hormone-growth of thyroid gland and secretion of t3 and t4

    2 major ones in posterior pit

    ADH-antidiuretic hormone raises bp

    Oxytocin-causes ucs and secreted during bf to cause production of milk from mammary glands, "love hormone"

    Oxytocin gets released during light caresses, sex, when someone shows they trust you, and sometimes even simply with talking. When released, oxytocin increases feelings of attachment for another person, as well as feelings of trust. It also decreases feelings of stress, fear and pain

2. thyroid gland-secretes t3 & t4 made from iodine used from blood maintains metabolism

3. parathyroid glands-dorsal side of thyroid gland, secretes parathyroid hormone which maintains calcium levels in blood necessary for all body tissue functions especially muscles!

4. adrenal glands- secretes 2 different hormones steroids and catecholamines

     steroids influence sugar(cortisol), salt(aldosterone), and sex(androgens and estrogens)

     catecholamines are epinephrine and norepinephrine needed for stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system fight or flight

5. pancreas-produces insulin and glucagon to regulate blood sugar levels

6. ovaries (in females) -produce eggs and secrretes estrogen and progesterone

7. testicles (in males) -produce sperm and testosterone

8. pineal gland-secretes melatonin to help us sleep-in central portion of brain

     melatonin levels are inhibited by sunlight...BUT increase with light


  • Increased melatonin = increased sleep!!!

     SAD-seasonal affective disorder-depression in winter months-spring ahead sunday       morning

Although the hormones circulate throughout the body, each type of hormone is targeted toward certain organs and tissue

Hormone levels that are too high or too low indicate a problem with the endocrine system.

Hormone diseases also occur if your body does not respond to hormones in the appropriate ways. Stress, infection, and changes in the blood's fluid and electrolyte balance can also influence hormone levels.

The most common endocrine disease in the United States is diabetes, a condition in which the body does not properly process glucose, a simple sugar. This is due to the lack of insulin or, if the body is producing insulin

Diabetes, the most common disease of the endocrine system, can be linked to obesity, diet and family history

Hormone imbalances can have a significant impact on the reproductive system, particularly in women

Another disorder, hypothyroidism, occurs when the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone to meet the body’s needs.  insufficient thyroid hormone can cause many of the body's functions to slow or shut down completely

thyroid dx

hypo-not enough thyroid                                                               hyper- too much thyroid hormone                                                                                             hormone              

Graves dx protrusion occurs d/t swelling of tissue behind eyeball


Cushing syndrome-too much cortisol from adrenal cortex-can get from using steroids to pump up!



too much growth/not enough growth hormone


Blood sugar levels can be fasting, post prandial, or hgA1C which can tell us how blood sugar levels have been for long term

urine tests

thyroid function tests blood




CT-Xray image of glands to view size and check for tumors

MRI-images to locate abnormalities

Scan-eval thyroid function and check for nodule and tumors

US-Best method to eval thyroid, uses sound waves to show images




Hormone replacement-pills,injections,creams

Test Review

Diabetes -what is it? 2 types

complications are-retinopathy,neuropathy,nephropathy                                                -emia

what is hypo/hyperglycemia?                                -tropin

Adeno- gland                                                         adrenal-adrenal gland,secretes cortisol                             

gonad/o-sex glands                                                  -uria

pancreato-pancreas                                                   estro-female

pituitary-  secretes gonadotropins                                hyper-

thyro and thyroid-secretes t3 t4/calcitonin                   hypo-

eu is good                                                                pan-

poly-                                                                     - tropin-stimulate

andr/o  male                                                     







ster/o -solid

acromegaly-excess gh in adulthood