Kettner's Science Class
Life Science
By: Abby S.



A usually microscopic structure containingnuclear and cytoplasmic material enclosed by asemipermeable membrane and, in plants, a cellwall; the basic structural unit of all organisms.

Difference Between Plant and Animal Cells:

Animal cells do not have a cell wall and are irregular in shape while plant cells have a cell wall and are regular in shape. In animal cells no chloroplast is present while plant cells contain chloroplast. In animal cells there are small temporary vacuoles or no vacuole while in plant cells large vacuoles are located in the center of the cell.

Similarities and differences between plant and animal cell structures:

Muscle Cell:

Muscle Cells contain protein filaments of actin and myosin that slide past one another, producing a contraction that changes both the length and the shape of the cell. Muscles function to produce force and motion.

Nerve Cell:

Your nervous system contains millions of nerve cells, called neurons. Neurons are highly specialised to transmit messages from one part of your body to another.

Bone Cell:

A function of a bone cell might be the remodeling of the bone through growths of new arms on the cell. It is also known that bone cells can increase growth factors which activate lining cells.

Cartilage Cells:

Cartilage is made up of cartilage cells which aid in production, function and repair of the tissue. Cartilage cells also allow the cartilage to retain the flexibility needed to coat joint endings and form structures such as the nose and ears.

Tissues and Organs:

The brain is is surrounded by a layer of tissue called the meninges. The primary function of the meninges is to protect the central nervous system. This tissue protects and acts as padding around your brain.

Digestive System:

The function of the digestive system is digestion and absorption. Digestion is the breakdown of food into small molecules, which are then absorbed into the body. The digestive system is divided into two major parts: The digestive tract is a continuous tube with two openings: the mouth and the anus.

Circulatory System:

The circulatory system functions in the delivery of oxygen, nutrient molecules, and hormones and the removal of carbon dioxide, ammonia and other metabolic wastes. Capillaries are the points of exchange between the blood and surrounding tissues.

Respiratory System:

The primary function of the respiratory system is to supply the blood with oxygen in order for the blood to deliver oxygen to all parts of the body. The respiratory system does this through breathing. When we breathe, we inhale oxygen and exhale carbon dioxide.

Interaction Between the Systems:

The respiratory system takes in oxygen from the atmosphere and moves that oxygen into the bloodstream. The circulatory system then carries the oxygen to all the cells in the body and picks up carbon dioxide waste which it returns to the lungs. Carbon dioxide diffuses from the blood into the lungs and it is then exhaled into the atmosphere.


Single celled organisms like the paramecium must do everything required for life,take in nutrition, eliminate waste, produce energy, and reproduce, within the confines of a single cell. As such, the single cell of a paramecium has many functions.



A genotype is the genetic constitution of an individual organism. The two genotypes in the above image are G and g.


From the above Punnett Square, the possible outcomes are 75% green flowers and 25% yellow flowers.


50% of the above outcomes are homozygus.


50% of the above outcomes are heterozygus.

Sexual vs. Asexual Reproduction:

Offspring that result from sexual reproduction are more likely to have more diversecharacteristics than offspring that result from asexual reproduction. This is true because in sexually reproducing organisms, the new individual receives half of the genetic information from its mother through the egg and half from its father from his sperm. Sexually produced offspring resemble, but are not identical to, either of their parents. While during asexual reproduction, the individual recieves all of its genetic information from a single parent.



Adaptation is a change or the process of change by which an organism or species becomes better suited to its environment.


The process by which different kinds of living organisms are thought to have developed and diversified from earlier forms during the history of the earth.


A species is a group of living organisms consisting of similar individuals capable of exchanging genes or interbreeding.


A gene is a unit of heredity that is transferred from a parent to offspring and is held to determine some characteristic of the offspring.


Genetics are of or relating to genes, or the origin of something.

Sexual Reproduction:

Sexual reproduction is the production of new living organisms by combining genetic information from two individuals of different sexes. In most higher organisms, one sex (male) produces a small motile gamete that travels to fuse with a larger stationary gamete produced by the other (female).

Asexual Reproduction:

Asexual reproduction is a mode of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single organism, and inherit the genes of that parent only; it is reproduction which almost never involves ploidy or reduction.

Animal Classification:

Survival Value of Genetic Variation:

Genetic diversity strengthens a population by increasing the likelihood that at least some individuals will be able to survive major disturbances, and by making the group less susceptible to inherited disorders.





Types of Ecosystems:

1.) Tropical rain forest:
-Precipitation - 250cm/year
-Little temp. variation/abundant moisture
-Contains more species than other biomes (regions of the world with similar climate, animals, and plants)
2.) Savannas:
-Precipitation: 90-150cm/year
-Open, widely spaced trees, seasonal rainfall
-Parts of Africa, South America & Australia
3.) Desert:
-Precipitation 20cm/year
-Dry, sparce vegetation; scattered grasses
-Parts of Africa, Asia, Australia, North America
4.) Temperate Grasslands:
-Precipitation: 10-60cm/year
-Rich soil; tall dense grasses
-Central North America; Central Asia
5.) Decidious Forests:
-Warm summers, cool winters
-Europe; NE United States;Eastern Canada


-Decomposers are organisms that break down dead or decaying organisms, and in doing so, carry out the natural process of decomposition.
-Consumers are organisms that generally obtains food by feeding on other organisms or organic matter due to lack of the ability to manufacture own food from inorganic sources; a heterotroph.
-An ecosystem is a biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment.
-Producers are organisms in an ecosystem that produce biomass from inorganic compounds (autotrophs).
-A food chain is a linear sequence of links in a food web starting from "producer" species and ending with "decomposer" species. A food chain also shows how organisms are related with each other by the food they eat.
-Biotic is of, relating to, or resulting from living things, especially in their ecological relations.
-Abiotic is physical rather than biological; not derived from living organisms.
-Adaptation is a change or the process of change by which an organism or species becomes better suited to its environment.

Biotic vs. Abiotic Factors in a Wetland Ecosystem:

Examples of biotic features in wetlands include plants, animals, bacteria, and all other living organisms. While abiotic features of wetlands include the climate of the wetlands, water, light, rocks and minerals, soil, and other abiotic factors found in all biomes.

A Wetland Ecosystem Food Chain:

~Producers:The catagory of producers contains all of the plants (such as cattails), phytoplankton, and other organisms in a particular community that use photosynthesis to convert sunlight into chemical energy.
~Primary Consumer:In a wetland, all of the herbivores, such as pond snails, fathead minnows and muskrats, would be grouped together as primary consumers.
~Secondary Consumer: These organisms are primarily omnivores and carnivores, such as green sunfish, northern water snakes and bullfrogs.
~Tertiary Consumer: Tertiary consumers are often animals such as mink and great blue herons, that eat secondary consumers.
~Quarternary Consumer:
~Top Predator: The top predators of a wetland are often black bears or mountain lions.

Entering an Ecosystem:

Energy enters the ecosystem food chain in the form of sunlight.

Arrows in a Food Chain:

The arrows in a food web represent the flow of energy through the web, further along the arrows/web means that less energy is moving along. The energy flows through arrow to the next consumer, the energy moving through the arrows have less and less energy as the web moves on.

Elements in a Food Chain...

If one element of the food chain were to be eliminated it would affect the balance of the entire chain. If you lost crayfish, for example, the number of snails would likely increase (lack of a predator), while the bullfrog numbers would decline as they ran out of a food source.

Wetlands Effect on Water Quality:

Wetlands filter storm water runoff— removing harmful chemicals and excess nutrients, and trapping sediment before it reaches a river or lake. They also replenish groundwater, which provides drinking water for many people.

Wetlands Offer on Flood Protection:

Wetlands act like a giant sponge, absorbing excess water from rain and snowmelt, and then slowly releasing it into nearby waterways. Wetland vegetation also slows down the flow of runoff and spreads it out over a larger area. These two features help lower flood height and reduce erosion from flooding.

Wetlands Protection on Shorelines from Erosion:

Wetland plants hold soil/sand in place with their roots, absorb wave energy, and break up the flow of stream currents.

Wetlands Provide Habitat for Wildlife:

Many insects, fish, mammals and birds depend on wetlands for all or part of their life cycle. Most commercial and game fish breed and raise their young in coastal marshes and estuaries (the tidal mouth of a large river, where the tide meets the stream). Shrimp, oysters, clams and crabs rely on wetlands for food, shelter and breeding grounds. Some plants and animals, such as cattails and muskrats, need wetlands to survive. Many birds raise their young in wetlands, or use wetlands as a place to rest (migratory birds).

Benefits of Wetlands:

Wetlands offer us many plants and animals that we use for food (blueberries, cranberries, fish and shellfish) or medicine (derived from soils or plants). Wetlands also offer recreational opportunities such as hunting, fishing and nature photography.

Food Web:

Energy Flow in an Ecosystem:

Cellular Respiration: