Sapphire - a valuable mineral

DanThanh D. Block 3- Mrs. Smith

What is a mineral?
In order for something to be a mineral, it has to have 5 characteristics;
1) It has to be naturally occurring. (Found in the Earth)
2) It has to be inorganic- cannot be made from something that was once living.
3) It has to be a solid, it must have a definite shape and volume.
4) It has to have a crystalline structure, the repeating pattern of a mineral's structure.
5) It has to have a definite chemical composition and always contains elements in the same amounts.

How to Identify a Mineral: 8 Steps

Luster: How a mineral reflects light
Hardness: Mineral's resistance to being scratched
Colour: The colour of the mineral
Streak: The colour of a mineral in powdered form
Crystal Form:
Cleavage & Fracture: how of minerals to break on curved/flat surfaces
Diaphaneity: Ability to see through a mineral
Other Mineral Properties: Fluorescence, chemical reaction, optical properties, taste, radioactivity

Sapphire Properties:
-Luster: to find the luster; we looked at if was metallic or not, and compared it on the
scale. Sapphire's Luster: Vitreous
-Hardness: to find the hardness, you scratch it against other minerals to see which one is harder. Sapphire's hardness: 9
-Colour: Alot of colours; including purple & red
-Streak: White
-Crystal Form: Hexagonal
-Cleavage/Fracture: Conchoidal
-Diaphaneity: Transparent to Opaque
-Special Properties: It it the second hardest mineral found on Earth, besides that, there are really no special properties.

History: Sapphire is the second hardest mineral; with a score of 9 on Moh's hardness scale. A medieval historian wrote kings wore them to prevent them from harm, and Sapphires that were worn to a signing of a treaty was believed that it would prevent further bloodshed.
Uses: jewelry, timepieces, pens


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