Thermal energy is basically heat. You can measure heat with a thermometer.
The ways to transfer heat is by conduction, convection, and radiation
Conduction-the movement of heat or electricity through something
Convection-movement in a gas or liquid in which the warmer parts move up and the colder parts move down
Radiation-energy that comes from a source in the form of waves or rays you cannot waves
Conductor-a material or object that allows electricity or heat to move through it
Insulator-a material that allows little or no heat, electricity or sound to go into or out of something