Science project, describes three different kinds of rocks.

Igneous Rocks

Igneous rocks are formed by solidification of molten lava.

Basalt: Basalt is a fine grained, dark-colored rock. People use basalt for many purposes, crushed basalt is used for road base, concrete aggregate, railroad gravel, and lots of other things. When they are freshly made, they are dark black, but after weather changes the rock turns into a reddish, greenish, or blueish color.

Granite: Granite is a rock with grains visible with the naked eye, coarse grained, and its light-colored. Granite is mainly composed of quartz. The mineral composition of the rock gives granite a pink, red, grey, or white color and dark mineral grains throughout the rock. This is the best known igneous rock, its used to make countertops, floor tiles, paving stone, and more.

Obsidian: Obsidian is an igneous rock that forms when molten rock cools rapidly that atoms can't arrange themselves into a crystalline structure. The most common color of obsidian is black. It can be also be brown, green, or tan, but you rarely see obsidian in blue, pink, or red. Two colors of obsidian are swirled together, like brown and black, they are the two most common colors swirled together. Obsidian is a popular gemstone. Its hardness is a 5.5 which makes it easy to carve into.

Pumice: Pumice is a light-colored, extremely porous, which means it has holes, igneous rock. It forms during volcanic explosions. The holes in the rock are formed by gas bubbles that were once in the  rock. The most common use of pumice rocks are using them in lightweight concrete blocks, and other lightweight concrete products.

Pegmatite: Pegmatite are extreme igneous rocks that form during the last stage of magma's crystallization. They are extreme because they contain large crystals, and they have minerals that are rarely found within them. They have a limited use as an architecture stone, it is rarely used in anything. The world's best gemstones are found in pegmatite.

Granite is located in Wyoming and basalt in located in near the southern part of Washington.

Metamorphic Rocks

Metamorphic rocks are rocks that were once a form of rock but changed to another under the influence of heat, pressure, or some other agent.

Slate: Slate is a fine-grained, foliated metamorphic rock that is caused by the alteration of shale. It is popular for its use for flooring, roofing, and flagging cause of it's durability and attractiveness. Mostly slates are gray and they come from light to dark grey. Slate also occurs in shades of green, red, black, purple and brown. The color of slate is mostly committed by the amount, type of iron, and organic material that are in the rock.

Marble: Marble is a metamorphic rock that forms when limestone is put through the heat and pressure of metamorphism. Marble is crushed and used as an aggregate in railroad beds, highways, and buildings. Marble is usually a light color and has the hardness of 3 on the Mohs hardness scale.

Soapstone: Soapstone is  a metamorphic rock that is primarily composed of Talc. It is soft and easy to carve, it's heat resistant, and has high specific heat capacity. Soapstone is used in a variety of things that are used or are in the kitchen. For some examples are countertops, bowls, plates, sinks, electrical panels, wall tiles, and floor tiles.

Quartzite: Quartzite is a coarse grained, metamorphic rock. It can be either white, yellow, or brown. When you crack it open, it goes around the grains revealing a smooth surface. It can be used for buildings, walls, floor tiles, or roofing. It can be found in mountainous locations.

Gneiss: Gneiss is a coarse grained, foliated rock formed by regional metamorphism, its also metaphoric rock. The grains of Gneiss are elongated by pressure and the colors are usually light and dark bands. The lighter bands usually contain quartz.

The map says that marble is located in Alabama and Slate is located in Vermont.

Sedimentary Rocks

Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the deposition of material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water.

Shale: Shale is a fine-grained sedimentary rock. Black shale has organic materials in it which makes gas. Other shales can be brushed and used for clay. The rock is laminated meaning that it is made out of different layers.

Sandstone: Sandstone is a sedimentary rock made out of sand sized grains. This is one of the most common sedimentary rocks there is. The particle size of the grains in the rock rather than the material of which it is composed is what sand means to the geologist.

Coal: Coal is an organic sedimentary rock that forms from the preservation of plants. Coal is used for heat, fuel, and oil. Those are the most common things which they use coal for.

Rock salt: Rock salt is a chemical sedimentary rock that forms from the evaporation of ocean or lake waters. Its also called halite, in a way. People process rock salt so that it can be seasoning for different types of foods.

Limestone: Limestone is sedimentary rock composed of calcium carbonate. It mostly forms in clear waters. Limestone can also from from evaporation. Limestone is not found everywhere, people pay a lot more for limestone if it isn't found in a place near them.

The map says that limestone is found in Virginia and rock salt is found in New York.


There are many types of landforms in the world. A landform is a natural feature of the earth's surface.

Landforms from lava and ash

Cinder cone volcanoes:A cinder cone volcano is conical hill formed by the accumulation of volcanic debris around a vent. They are usually made of lava, not ash. During the eruption, blobs of lava are break into small fragments that fall around the opening to the volcano. The pile forms an oval-shaped small volcano.

Shield volcanoes: A shield volcano is a flat and wide volcano that has low-silica magma with low or high levels of dissolved gas. Most shield volcanoes are formed of fluid, dark, volcanic rock lava flows. Shield volcanoes can vary in size, a less common type of shield volcano is a pyroclastic shield, which has broad low-angle slopes that are formed by accumulation of fragmental material from powerful explosive eruptions.

Landforms from magma

Volcano necks: A volcano neck is a column of solidified lava or igneous rock formed in a volcanic vent, especially when exposed by erosion. When a volcano stops erupting, the magma hardens inside the vent. Eroding, usually by water and wind, begins to wear away the volcano. The cone is much softer than the solid igneous rock in the vent. The cone erodes first, leaving behind the solid igneous core as a volcanic neck.

Batholiths: A batholith is a very large igneous disruption extending deep in the earth's crust. Batholiths form when magma bodies that are being forced upward from inside Earth, they cool slowly and solidify before reaching the surface. However, not all of them remain inside Earth. Some batholiths have been seen on Earth’s surface by many people.


Caves: A cave is a very large underground chamber, typically of natural origin, in a hillside or cliff. Caves are long in width cavities in limestone produced by solution and aided by mechanical erosion. They form along paths of greatest groundwater solution, usually along joint planes as water circulates through the fractures. Cave entrances and terminations can be found on hillsides, in quarries, or at various other exposed locations.

Geothermal activity

Hot springs: Hot springs are a spring of naturally hot water, typically heated by subterranean volcanic activity. Hot springs occur when this heated water forms a pool on the surface of the Earth. hot springs tend to be full of minerals, and people have used these hot pools for medicinal purposes for centuries. However, not all hot springs are safe to bathe in. Some are way too hot or way too acidic and can badly injure anyone stepping into the water.

Geysers: A geyser is a hot spring in which water boils at periods of times, sending a tall column of water and steam into the air. A geyser is a type of hot spring that periodically erupts, shooting water and steam into the air. The process begins as water migrates to the geyser's plumbing system through fissures in ground. The pressure pushes down on the water because it's miles down into the ground. Then it starts bubbling and it blows up to the surface.