Human Prehistory to Early Civilizations

With the development of agriculture, stone working, and metalworking, previous hunter-gatherers formed major civilizations in river valleys.

Human Prehistory
-Hunter Gatherers—daily schedule revolved around hunting and gathering food
-Discovery of Fire = Better Chances of Survival (Warmth, Light, Cooking Meat, etc.)
-Agriculture and Neolithic Revolution
-Agriculture = Steady supply of food
Rise of Stone— better weapons
-Domestication of Animals = Skins, Meats, Dairy

Early Civilizations
-Agriculture → Settlements → Civilizations
-Civilization: Complex Society with enough resources to support social classes
-Featured Job Specialization, Governments, Language, Metalworking, Religion
-Many Civilizations began in River Valleys because of fertile soil


Mesopotamia
-In the "Fertile Crescent" between Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
-Sumerians introduced Cuneiform (alphabet)
-Babylonians introduced money and concrete laws

Egypt
-After Mesopotamia
-Along the Nile River
-Religion revolved around pleasing the gods to bring floods, which would lead to good agriculture
-Pharaohs were divine rulers that spoke to the gods

Other Civilizations
-Indus River Valley: Strong ruling class; Harappa was a major trading center
-Chinese: Along Yellow River; Made Language featuring ideographic symbols

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