By: Alegre Cohen, Tammy Teubal, Dana Brakha, Lynda Mordok
* A Egyptian pyramid are the stones tombs for Egyptian king
* Nowadays pyramids are in Nile River and in the dry desert
* The Great pyramid is the largest and famous of all pyramids
* A Sphinx is the guard of the pyramid, it has the head of a Pharaoh and a body of a lion
Egypt was governed by one man called the pharaoh. The pharaoh was in charge of everything and owned everything. People saw him as a G-d .Pharaoh started being used for king in the new kingdom.He had a lot of helpers to help him do a good job some of them were members of the royal family. the royal family was the highest level of society in ancient egypt. some important battles the egyptians had were:
Megido battle(egyptians vs syrians): egypt had around 20,000 men to fight and syria had around 15,000. egypt won the battle and took 200 chariots and 200 horses from them.
Another war was in kadesh, Syria. this was a very important war for the egyptians because if they defeat the syrians they will conquer syria. in the egyptians army were 20,000 men which were divided into 4 groups: ptah, Ra, Amun and Sutekh.
- Pharaoh: responsible of making laws and keeping orders.
- Vizier: Pharaoh's chief advisor.
- Priests: responsible of making G-d happy.
- Nobles: ruled regions of Egypt.
- Scribes: only one that could read and write, and were responsible of keeping records.
- Soldiers: responsible to defend the country.
- Craftsmen: skilled workers
- Farmers: work the land of the Pharaohs, and nobles. They were given houses, food, and clothes in return.
- Slaves: prisioners captured in war.
*Cleopatra VII: Egyptian queen. Last pharaoh of Ancient Egypt. She is considered one of the most prominent figures in history.
*Tutankhamun: Born in 1341 B.C and died in 1323 B.C. Egyptian pharaoh who reigned between 1333 BC until 1324. He is known as the most important Egyptian pharaoh.
* Nefertiti: she was the Wife of the Egyptian Pharaoh Akhenaten. she was born on BC 1370 and died in BC 1330. She and her husband started a revolution by believing in one g-d ( monotheism).
* Ramesses II: was the third Egyptian pharaoh of the Nineteenth dynasty .
He was known as the most powerful king of the empire. He was born on BC 1303 and died in BC 1213. He had 40 kids 20 girls and 20 boys.
Girls marry at the age of 12, but girls of affluent family marry a few years older. The parents arrange their marriage. Before the marriage they need to sign an agreement.
*Food and Cooking
In those times in Egypt people cooked in clay ovens. Regular people ate in dishes made of clay, but wealthy people eated in dishes made of gold, silver, and bronze. The most popular beverage was the beer, and the most common food was the bread.
*FarmingMen and boys worked in the fields using the shaduf to bring water to the crops. The women were the ones that cooked a lot of things. When flood months began they service to the government. The wealthy ones could pay and didn't have to work, but the others would have to work on building pyramids, temples, or much more.
*JewelryEgyptians made more attractive their clothes by adding jewelry. Both men and women used it such as earrings, bracelets, braded necklaces and a lot more. In their jewelry they put shells, turquoise, copper, gold to make them more attractive. Because they were very superstitious their jewelry had amulets (good luck charms).
Cosmetics were part of Egyptians dress, personal hygiene, and health. Oil and creams were very necessary because of the sun and wind.
*GovernmentEgypt was the first unified country in the history. The head of the government was the Pharaohs. The Pharaohs had a top assistant (prime minister or vizier). In cases the pharaoh went fighting and left the prime minister in charge. Every time the pharaoh was doing something the prime minister was the one that was running the country. Because the prime minister couldn’t do everything, Egypt was divided into geographic subdivisions called nomes. The major part of Egyptians life was paying taxes. They didn’t have money, but they based on the deben (unit of weight). Payment of debts were still paid in goods.
The Ancient Egypt civilization started in The Delta, below Alexandria. As you see the Nile River isolated and was very much protected by the deserts. The flood of the Nile river helped a lot by helping farmers to crop and raise a lot of food. And by the Nile River the civilization began growing and growing and has lasted really long.
- Early Dynastic: the unification between lower and upper Egypt. Art, religion, and architecture, took place in the early dynastic period.
- Old Kingdom: when the Egyptian civilization started to make achievements.
- Middle Kingdom: Egypt entered a period of Pharaonic power and called it the First Intermediate Period.
- New Kingdom: the Theban rulers began to control the Hyksos kings.
- Libyan: the expulsion of the Nubian rulers of the Twenty Fifth Dynasty.
- Late Persian: Egypt was no longer independent. Persian control was challenged by Egyptian kings.
- Greek: They were the last dynasty of ancient Egypt.
- Roman: Egypt was eventually taken over by the Romans.