Subjects, Verbs, and Sentences
A sentence is a group of words that expresses a complete thought.
For a sentence to express a complete thought, it needs to have two parts:
1. Subject: tell whom or what the sentence is about.
- Nouns: name people, place, things, or ideas.
- Pronouns: take the place of nouns.
2. Verb: tell what the subject is or does.
-Transitive Action Verbs
- Intransitive Action Verbs
- Transitive Passive Verbs
- Linking Verbs
Verb Phrases and Helping Verbs
Verb phrases are two or more verbs acting together as one verb.
- Main Verb: verb that carries the most meaning.
- Helping Verb: verb that helps the main verb. They express tenses or conditions of main verbs.
Helping verbs (24):
be, am, is, are, was, were, been, being, have, has, had, could, should, would, may, might, must, shall, can, will, do, did, does, having
Declarative Sentences and Questions (Interrogative Sentences)
Declarative Sentences make statements. They end with periods.
Interrogative Sentences ask questions. They end with question marks.
Diagramming interrogative sentences:
- Rewrite them as declarative sentences.
- Put the subject on the left and the verb or verb phrase on the right.
Pronouns and Commands (Imperative Sentences)
Pronouns are words that take the place of nouns.
Imperative Sentences give commands. They end with periods or exclamation marks.
- The subject is implied; it is always the person or thing you are talking to
- The subject is always you understood: (you)
Adjectives are words that describe (or modify) nouns and pronouns.
- Which one?
- What kind?
- How many?
Articles (a, an, and the) are also adjectives.
Adverbs are words that describe (or modify) verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs.
- To what extent?
Prepositional Phrases (Adjective and Adverb)
Phrases are group of words, without both a subject and a verb, that act together as a single part of speech.
Prepositions are words that show the relationship between a noun/pronoun and another word or element in the sentence. They are always in prepositional phrases.
- Begin with a preposition
- End with a noun/pronoun (called the object of the preposition)
- Act as adjectives or adverbs (refer back to the Adjective & Adverb Questions)
Intransitive Complete Verbs, Transitive Active Verbs, and Direct Obejects
Intransitive Complete Verbs are action verbs that don't transfer their action to anything.
- In- means not & Trans- means across; to transfer
Transitive Active Verbs transfer their action to a receiver (someone or something).
- The receiver of the action is called the direct object
Direct Objects are nouns/pronouns that receive the action of transitive active verbs.
Direct Object Questions:
- What? & Whom?
- What/Whom did _subject_ _verb_?
Conjunctions are words that join two or more words, phrases, or clauses.
- Coordinating conjunctions: connect elements of the same kind. These elements are called compound.
- Subordinating conjunctions: connect adverb dependent clauses with independent clauses.
- Correlative conjunctions: connect elements of the same kind. They are made up of more than one word.
Coordinating Conjunctions: For, And, Nor, But, Or, Yet, So (FANBOYS)
Correlative Conjunctions: either...or, neither...nor, not only...but also, both...and
Coordinating Conjuctions (Compound Subject & Verb)
Coordinating Conjuctions (Compound Adjective & Adverb)
Coordinating Conjuctions (Compound Direct Object & Prepositional Phrase)
Coordinating Conjuctions (Compound Sentence or Independent Clause)
Transitive Active Verbs and Indirect Objects
Transitive active verbs transfer their action to a receiver. The receiver of the action is called the direct object.
Indirect Objects are nouns and pronouns that receive the direct object.
- They answer For Whom? and To Whom? about the direct object without using a preposition.
- To diagram an indirect object when it is not in a prepositional phrase, put an (x) where the "missing preposition" is.
- There must be a direct object in order to have an indirect object.
Interjections and Nouns of Direct Address
Interjections are words that show emotion and have no grammatical relationship to the rest of the sentence.
- They typically come at the beginning of sentences
- They are punctuated with either a comma or an exclamation mark
- Some of them are made of more than one word
Nouns of Direct Address are nouns that name the person or people being spoken to. They are not grammatically related to the rest of the sentence.
- They are not subjects of sentences
Interjections and Nouns of Direct Address do not have a grammatical relationship to the rest of the sentence.
- They do not modify anything nor play a role in the sentence that affects any other part of the sentence.
- Diagram Interjections and Nouns of Direct Address on lines floating above the subject.
Transitive Passive Verbs
Transitive Passive Verbs are action verbs that transfer their action to the subject.
- They always have a helping verb (was, were, are,...)
- They always transfer their action to the subject
- The doer of the action may be found in a prepositional phrase
Sentences written with transitive passive verbs are said to be written in the passive voice.
Intransitive Linking Verbs (Predicate Adjectives and Predicate Nouns)
Linking Verbs (or Intransitive Linking Verbs) link the subject with a noun or an adjective in the rest of the sentence.
- They are state of being verbs.
- They act like an equal sign (=) between the subject and the special noun or adjective in the rest of the sentence.
- When diagramming, draw a slanted line between the linking verb and the predicate noun or predicate adjective.
be, am, is, are, was, were, been, being, become, appear, feel, grow, look, seem, smell, sound, taste, turn, stay, remain
Predicate Nouns are nouns that come after linking verbs.
- They rename the subject.
Predicate Adjectives are adjectives that come after linking verbs.
- They describe the subject.