Between about 1820 and 1850, American reformers devoted themselves to such causes as ending slavery, promoting women’s rights, protecting the mentally ill and improving education
Second great awakening was a cause of the idea of new religious ideas in America. They wanted to build "heaven on earth", which made people to improve society.
Temperance movement was campaign for people to stop drinking alcohol. They believed society would be better if there was no alcohol.
The education reform was the idea that everyone in society would benefit from children going to school and that people should pay taxes to fund schools, and pay teachers. Horace Mann argued that education was the “great equalizer” and “greatly improve America.” He is known as the "father of education".
Women's rights was wanted because of the inequality of rights. Women couldn’t control the money they earned, they couldn’t vote, and they didn’t have the right to buy or control their own property. The Seneca falls convention in 1848 was a convention that discussed women's rights.
The Abolition movement was sparked because of the second great awakening. It was the ending of slavery. I am a believer in that portion of the Declaration of American Independence in which it is set forth, as among self-evident truths, "that all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness." This quote from William Lloyd Garrison was crucial to the movement because Garrison used the inalienable rights from the constitution to express his opinion of the abolition movement.
Mormonism is that it was not another Christian sect or denomination but was the only new religious tradition founded in nineteenth-century America during the reform movement. The founder is Joseph Smith and they not only believe in the Bible but also in the Book of Mormon. From the beginning, Joseph Smith and his followers provoked ridicule for Mormonism's seemingly magical if not superstitious origins. They were pushed out of Missouri into the area of Utah where they wanted to create a utopian society for Mormons. "In the years after the LDS Church began practicing polygamy, it drew intense scrutiny and criticism from the United States government. This criticism led to the Utah Mormon War, and eventually the abandonment of the practice under the leadership of Wilford Woodruff, who issued the 1890 Manifesto."