Japanese Encephalitis (JE) in India

1 header:Japanese encephalitis (Japanese: 日本脳炎, Nihon-nōen)—previously known as Japanese B encephalitis to distinguish it fromEconomo's A encephalitis—is a disease caused by the mosquito-borne Japanese encephalitis virus.[1] The Japanese encephalitis virus is a virus from the family Flaviviridae. Domestic pigs and wild birds (especially herons) are reservoirs of the virus; transmission to humans may cause severe symptoms. Amongst the most important vectors of this disease are the mosquitoes Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Culex vishnui. This disease is most prevalent in Southeast Asia and East Asia.

2 Header: Japanese encephalitis is spread through the bite of an infected mosquito (vector). Some animals, especially infected pigs and birds, can have large amounts of the virus in their blood and serve as a major source of the virus (reservoir) for mosquitoes. Horses usually show no signs of disease. Japanese encephalitis is spread through the bite of an infected mosquito (vector). Some animals, especially infected pigs and birds, can have large amounts of the virus in their blood and serve as a major source of the virus (reservoir) for mosquitoes. Horses usually show no signs of disease

3 Header: It is not safe because the pigs and birds can infect the people so they need a cure. JE virus is the most common vaccine-preventable cause of encephalitis in Asia, occurring throughout most of Asia and parts of the western Pacific (Map 3-08). Local transmission of JE virus has not been detected in Africa, Europe, or the Americas. Transmission principally occurs in rural agricultural areas, often associated with rice cultivation and flood irrigation. In some areas of Asia, these ecologic conditions may occur near, or occasionally within, urban centers. In temperate areas of Asia, transmission is seasonal, and human disease usually peaks in summer and fall. In the subtropics and tropics, seasonal transmission varies with monsoon rains and irrigation practices and may be prolonged or even occur year-round. In endemic countries, where adults have acquired immunity through natural infection, JE is primarily a disease of children. However, travel-associated JE can occur among people of any age. For most travelers to Asia, the risk for JE is extremely low but varies based on destination, duration, season, and activities.

4 header: It could kill the government and mabe even thre president. Japanese encephalitis is a type of viral brain infection that is spread through mosquito bites. It's most common in rural areas throughout South East Asia, the Pacific islands and the Far East, but is very rare in travellers. The virus is found in pigs and birds, and is passed to mosquitoes that bite the infected animals. It’s more common in rural areas where there are pig farms and rice fields. It cannot be spread from person to person.

5 header: It could make the economy for the hospital go up.Japanese encephalitis (JE), a vector-borne viral disease, is endemic to large parts of Asia and the Pacific. An estimated 3 billion people are at risk, and JE has recently spread to new territories. Vaccination programs, increased living standards, and mechanization of agriculture are key factors in the decline in the incidence of this disease in Japan and South Korea. However, transmission of JE is likely to increase in Bangladesh, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Myanmar, North Korea, and Pakistan because of population growth, intensified rice farming, pig rearing, and the lack of vaccination programs and surveillance. On a global scale, however, the incidence of JE may decline as a result of large-scale vaccination programs implemented in China and India.

6 header: It would make the culture less important.Japanese encephalitis (JE) is the leading cause of viral encephalitis in Asia, with up to 70,000 cases reported annually.[16] Case-fatality rates range from 0.3% to 60% and depend on the population and age. Rare outbreaks in U.S. territories in the Western Pacific have also occurred. Residents of rural areas in endemic locations are at highest risk; Japanese encephalitis does not usually occur in urban areas.

Countries which have had major epidemics in the past, but which have controlled the disease primarily by vaccination, include China, Republic of Korea, Japan, Taiwan and Thailand. Other countries that still have periodic epidemics include Vietnam, Cambodia, Myanmar, India, Nepal, andMalaysia. Japanese encephalitis has been reported on the Torres Strait Islands and two fatal cases were reported in mainland northern Australia in 1998. There were reported cases in Kachin State, Myanmar in 2013. The spread of the virus in Australia is of particular concern to Australian health officials due to the unplanned introduction of Culex gelidus, a potential vector of the virus, from Asia. However, the current presence on mainland Australia is minimal