Orders in Council
The Hartford Convention
By: Christie, Emily, and Natalie
The Orders in Council and the Embargo Act affected the War of 1812, while the war hawks and the Hartford Convention were affected by the War of 1812. The Orders in Council were a series of decrees made by Great Britain during the wars with France which instituted its policy of commercial warfare. They played a role in shaping the British war effort against France in the War of 1812, but they were also significant for the strained relations they caused between the United Kingdom and neutral countries, whose trade was affected by them. The Embargo Act had destroyed international commerce involving the US several years before the war and blockades during the war continued this. Americans were forced to produce most of their goods at home, which jump-started industrial manufacturing in America. Once of war ended, foreign goods flooded the American market, which dramatically lowered the price of many goods and caused many manufacturers in the US to fail. The Hartford Convention was a secret meeting of Federalist delegates from New England states who were against President Madison's mercantile policies relating to trade with other nations and the War of 1812. War hawks were members of The Twelfth Congress whose main objective was the expansion of the United States. They hid their motive under the guise of fighting against British shipping impressment, blockades, and ship seizures.There were the Western War Hawks, led by Henry Clay, who wanted to declare war against England and expand into Canada. The Southern War Hawks, led by John C. Calhoun, wanted to expand into Texas and Florida. All four terms are connected by the War of 1812 and American trade. Those against the Embargo Act gave cover to the war hawks' attempts to expand the US, the Orders in Council affected international trade with multiple countries which fueled the Hartford Convention members' anger with Madison's mercantile policies and subsequent creation of the convention, the war hawks encouraged the War of 1812, and the War of 1812 fueled the creation of the Hartford Convention.