Orders in Council
Embargo
War Hawks
The Hartford Convention
By: Christie, Emily, and Natalie

The Orders in Council and the Embargo Act affected the War of 1812, while the war hawks and the Hartford Convention were affected by the War of 1812. The Orders in Council were a series of decrees made by Great Britain during the wars with France which instituted its policy of commercial warfare. They played a role in shaping the British war effort against France in the War of 1812, but they were also significant for the strained relations they caused between the United Kingdom and neutral countries, whose trade was affected by them. The Embargo Act had destroyed international commerce involving the US several years before the war and blockades during the war continued this. Americans were forced to produce most of their goods at home, which jump-started industrial manufacturing in America. Once of war ended, foreign goods flooded the American market, which dramatically lowered the price of many goods and caused many manufacturers in the US to fail. The Hartford Convention was a secret meeting of Federalist delegates from New England states who were against President Madison's mercantile policies relating to trade with other nations and the War of 1812. War hawks were members of The Twelfth Congress whose main objective was the expansion of the United States. They hid their motive under the guise of fighting against British shipping impressment, blockades, and ship seizures.There were the Western War Hawks, led by Henry Clay, who wanted to declare war against England and expand into Canada. The Southern War Hawks, led by John C. Calhoun, wanted to expand into Texas and Florida. All four terms are connected by the War of 1812 and American trade. Those against the Embargo Act gave cover to the war hawks' attempts to expand the US, the Orders in Council affected international trade with multiple countries which fueled the Hartford Convention members' anger with Madison's mercantile policies and subsequent creation of the convention, the war hawks encouraged the War of 1812, and the War of 1812 fueled the creation of the Hartford Convention.

Comment Stream

2 years ago
0
2 years ago
0

The Hartford Convention or Leap no Leap is a political cartoon by the artist William Charles poking fun at the secret meetings held by New England Federalists in Hartford during December of 1814. The upper left-hand corner of the illustration depicts a man, representing Massachusetts, pulling Rhode Island and Connecticut towards the edge of a cliff and asking them to make the “leap” of seceding from the Union. The lower left-hand corner depicts King George III of England enticing the New England states with economic incentives.

2 years ago
0
2 years ago
0

This political cartoon from 1807, created by Alexander Anderson, addresses the displeasure with Thomas Jefferson's Embargo Act.

The cartoon depicts a smuggler being bitten by an American snapping turtle called "Ograbme" that represents the embargo. In the distance is a British ship, presumably waiting to smuggle American goods back to Britain. The smuggler's exclamation of, "Oh! This cursed Ograbme," is a criticism of the Embargo Act. Intended to punish Britain and France for interfering with American shipping, the Embargo Act actually harmed American merchants, who were now bereft of profitable overseas markets. Since most American industry during the early 1800s was located in the North, criticism of the Embargo Act was rather widespread in that section of the country.

2 years ago
0
2 years ago
0

Issued by the House Committee on Foreign Relations, this report is a summary of the argument for war. It outlines disputes regarding trade and impressment and makes use of patriotic language. The concluding paragraph reads: "Your committee, believing that the free born sons of America are worthy to enjoy the liberty which their fathers purchased at the price of so much blood and treasure, and seeing in the measures adopted by Great Britian, a course commenced and persisted in, which must lead to a loss of national character and independence, feel no hesitation in advising resistance by force..."
John Calhoun, a leading "war hawk" and U.S. representative from South Carolina, was acting chairman of the Committee on Foreign Relations when it issued this report. He later served as Secretary of War under President Monroe, using his position to push reform of the military which had been badly mismanaged during the war. He remained a major political figure for the rest of his life, including serving as Vice President to both John Quincy Adams and Andrew Jackson.

2 years ago
0
2 years ago
0

Additional information: After the War of 1812: The terms of the Treaty of Ghent, which ended the war, called for all occupied territory to be returned, the prewar boundary between Canada and the United States to be restored, and the Americans to gain fishing rights in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence. Also, the British ended their policy of seizing American sailors.

2 years ago
0