Chapter One: Earth, Moon, and Sun
by: Kyle Seely
Section 1: Earth in Space
1. How Earth Moves In Space
The Earth Moves in two major ways: rotation and revolution.
Rotation: There is an imaginary line that passes through the center of the Earth in between it's poles, and it's called it's axis.
Revolution: It is the movement of one object around another. One complete revolution is called a year.
The path that the Earth follows around the sun is called it's orbit.
2. What Causes the Cycle of the Seasons
The season depends on what hemisphere is tilted towards the sun. For example, while it is summer in the Northern Hemisphere, it is winter in the Southern Hemisphere and the other way around. But when both hemispheres get the same amount of direct sunlight it is either Fall or Spring.
Section 2: Gravity and Motion
1. What Determines the Strength of the Force of gravity between two Objects?
The force of gravity between two objects depends on the masses of the two objects and the distance between them.
When the mass increases then the force between the objects increases. When the distance between the two objects increases, the force decreases, and when the distance decreases, the force increases.
2. What two Forces Combine to keep the Moon and Earth in Orbit?
The two things that are combined are inertia and orbital motion.
The Earth's gravity keeps the moon in place and the moon's inertia keeps it moving around the Earth.
Section 3: Phases, Eclipses, and Tides
1. What causes the Phases of the Moon?
The sun is almost always shining light on the moon and it just depends on what side or direction we are looking at the moon from because of its revolution around the Earth. So, the phase of the moon depends on how much of the sunlit side of the moon is facing the Earth.
2. What are Solar and Lunar Eclipses?
An eclipse occurs when something comes between the Sun and a third object. There are two different kinds: solar and lunar.
A solar eclipse is when a new moon blocks the our view of the sun. A lunar eclipse is when the Earth is directly between the moon and the sun.
There are also partial eclipses.
3. What causes the Tides?
Tides are the rise and fall of the ocean water that takes places about every 12.5 hours.
The tides are caused by the differences in the pulls of the moon's gravity on different part of the Earth.
Section 4: Earth's Moon
1. What features are Found on the Moon's Surface?
There are features called highlands, maria, and craters.
Highlands: they are the light colored areas on the moon because the are the mountains.
Maria: these are the dark flat areas on the moon, and were formed by hardened lava flows on the moon that occurred many years ago.
Craters: these are the round,large pits all over the moon's surface that are formed by meteoroids that crash onto the moon.
2. What are some Characteristics of the Moon?
The Moon is dry and has no oxygen and has weird weather patterns.
It's diameter is one fourth the of the length of Earth's and has only one eighteenth the mass of Earth. The temperatures can range from 130 degrees Celsius during the day and down to -180 degrees Celsius at night. There is no liquid water on the Earth's surface, but there is said to be some ice near its poles but is blocked by some crater walls.
3. How did the Moon Form?
Scientists are not positive about how the moon was formed. The theory is that millions of years ago, a planet-sized object collided with the Earth and the material from it and the outer layers of the Earth were put into orbit around the Earth. And gravity caused all the material and debris to combine to form the moon.
My Moon Tracking Zone
My Moon Phases Chart
You can have your very own Moon Shoes!!!